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유럽 냉전의 개요 - '탈냉전'의 관점에서
The Contour of the European Cold War - from a 'Post-Cold War' Perspective

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Authors
이동기
Issue Date
2015-04
Publisher
서울대학교 국제문제연구소
Citation
세계정치, Vol.22(글로벌 냉전의 지역적 특성), pp. 17-66
Keywords
유럽 냉전유럽안보협력회의동방정책독일통일탈냉전평화운동European Cold WarCSCEOstpolitikGerman unificationPost-Cold Warpeace movement
Abstract
유럽 냉전은 냉전기 가장 강력한 군사동맹이었던 NATO와 WTO의 대결체제로 특징지어졌다. 유럽인들은 냉전 형성과 –독일분단을 포함해- 강화 과정에서 적극적인 역할을 수행했다. 미국과 소련의 압박과 규정이 항상 따라 다녔지만, 유럽은 독일분단과 동맹체제 형성과 유지 및 재구축에서 능동적인 이지와 적극적인 실천을 보였다. 그러나 유럽인들의 능동성이 더 적극적으로 발현된 것은 동방정책과 유럽안보협력회의를 통한 데탕트 정치와 아래로부터의 평화운동이었다. 특히 헬싱키-프로세스는 미국과 소련의 지원이나 양해에도 불구하고 무엇보다 유럽 프로젝트였다. N + N 국가들의 평화 가교 역할도 유럽 냉전의 특별한 점이었다. 결국, 유럽 냉전의 발전사는 위기나 공포를 넘어 대안적인 평화구상과 현실적인 평화정치와 구체적인 ‘탈냉전’의 성취가 함께 따랐다. 그렇기에 유럽 냉전은 열전과 비교되는 ‘상상의 전쟁’으로서의 냉전 양상을 보여 줄 뿐 만 아니라 평화의 발전사를 보여주는 것이기도 하다. 물론, 유럽의 ‘탈냉전’이 완성되었다고 보기는 어렵다. 냉전 극복에는 군사적 대결체제의 해체만이 아니라 이질적인 냉전 경험에 대한 더 많은 소통이 필요하다.
The European Cold War was characterized by the confrontation between NATO and Warsaw Pact which constituted the strongest systems of a military alliance during the global Cold War. Europe was most definitely in the shadow of the superpowers. But, the Europeans played also a vital role in the formation and consolidation of the Cold War regime in Europe, accompanied by the division of Germany, Despite the controls and influences of USA and Soviet Union, Europeans in the West and East developed an awareness about their own thinking and practices in configuring the Cold War Europe. However, the more evident culmination of the active role of Europe in the Cold War was Willy Brandt’s pursuit of Ostpolitik and the development of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe which represented a strong desire to overcome the rigidities of the bloc system and a European challenge to the excesses of bipolarity. In addition, the European neutral and non-aligned states took an active part in the multilateral negotiations that led to the developments of the ‘European project’ for peace. They acted as initiators and mediated as coordinator the necessary compromises between East and West. Besides, the European peace movement of the 1980s helped the peace politics continue and formed the foundation for a peaceful end of the Cold War in Europe. In this, the European Cold War was marked not only by the absence of wars. During the epoche of the Cold War, but the Europeans went on creating alternative peace politics, made ‘post-cold war’ efforts and accomplished remarkable achievements. The history of the European Cold War can be more positively reinterpreted as the development history of peace which could go beyond the ‘imaginary war’. From the perspective of experience, the Cold War in Europe didn’t end. To consummate the ‘post-cold war’ in Europe, one has to learn to communicate rather more on heterogeneous and different life experiences and memories on the Cold War than on the dissolution of the military confrontation system.
ISSN
1738-2440
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/94993
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Center for International Studies (국제문제연구소)세계정치(Journal of World Politics)세계정치 22 (2015)
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