S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.73/76(2016)
17~18세기 통제영의 방어체제와 병력운영
Defense system and troops management of Tongjeyoung in the 17~18th century
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.73, pp. 273-310
- 통제영은 선조 26년(1593) 8월 창설되어 고종 32년(1895) 폐지될 때까지 약 300년간 존속한 수군의 최고사령부였다. 임진왜란 당시 통제영의 설치는 조선수군이 한 단계 도약할 수 있는 계기가 되었다. 조선 전기 수군은 道단위 병력만 지휘할 수 있는 지휘체제만 가지고 있었지만, 통제영의 설치 이후로 이전보다 대규모 병력을 지휘할 수 있는 지휘체제를 확립할 수 있었다. 이로 인해 조선 후기 수군은 적 대응에 있어 이전 보다 진전된 모습을 보이게 되었다. 또한 통제영은 그 규모가 클 뿐 아니라 많은 재원을 보유하고 있었기 때문에 연해지역에서의 그 영향력도 컸다. 이러한 특성으로 인해 통제영은 연구자들의 지속적인 관심의 대상이 되어 왔다.
Tongjesa is public post and Tongjeyoung is the place stationed so as to control 三道水軍such as Chungcheong, Jeolla, Gyeongsang, etc. in the 26th year of Seonjo(1593). Tongjesa was established as a temporary job until the time of Japanese invasion of Korea, but the command was earnestly strengthened after the end. Right after the Japanese invasion of Korea, there were two changes which are duryongporo's moving and organization promotion in Tongjeyoung. The strategy of Tongjeyoung could be conducted well in Duryongpo, but there were problems of defense. In the late 17th century, court established mountain fortress and let uhuyoung be independent. Tongjeyoung possessed both naval force and army force because of the two characteristics; purpose of self-defense and naval post. Naval force was divided into two things; warship and naval force. Warship was organized by 8 formations and they are organized by 1 main ship and a few supporting ships again. If there is any problem, the role of 8 formations is to protect 1 座船, ridden by Tongjesa. In the warships, riding members and banggun were arranged. The riding members were divided into command division, attack division and sailing division. The army force in charge of self-defense of Tongjeyoung possessed various branches of the army, such as chinbyung, abyung, sungjunggun, etc, by focusing on mountain fortress junggun. Among them, most of them seem to be established by army force of Tongjesa, but they were in charge of the defense of mountain fortress after the establishment. They worked by various ways in Tongjeyoung. In consideration of officer management form of Tongjeyoung, it's regulated to pay salary to all of high-ranked commanders monthly in the troop, but pay it to some of low-ranked commanders, officers, etc. There were two methods to collect military force. In case of the branch of the army, which needs arts, such as catcher, cannon operator, master, etc, chairmen such as sunryungsoo, gunroe, etc, or army force which is necessary usually from an angle of public order maintenance, they worked for more than the certain days and received salary. The method was considered so as to relieve the burden of people and manage military force effectively.