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17~18세기 재해행정과 御史의 역할
The role of government envoy(御史) and the natural disaster administration(災害行政) in the 17~18th century

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Authors
원재영
Issue Date
2016-09
Publisher
서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
Citation
한국문화, Vol.75, pp. 233-267
Keywords
Chinhyuleosa(賑恤御史)Gamjineosa(監賑御史)Wiyueosa(慰諭御史 [Wiyusa:慰諭使])natural disaster administration(災害行政)right of request for relief supplies(賑資請得權)진휼어사감진어사위유어사재해행정진자청득권
Abstract
전근대 사회의 농업생산 과정에서 발생하는 旱災는 반복적으로 찾아오는 재해였다. 그런데 旱災는 장기간에 걸친 가뭄으로 인한 것이었다. 그러한 이유로 장마와 같이 단기간에 집중적인 피해를 주는 水災와는 달리 서서히 진행되는 특징을 보여준다. 따라서 旱災는 가뭄의 진행 상황에 따라 대응에 필요한 최소한의 시간적인 여유를 가질 수 있었다. 그리고 반복되는 旱災에 대한 경험은 재해의 피해가 몇 가지 결정적인 단계를 거치며 위기상황을 불러오게 된다는 사실을 어느 정도 예측 가능케 만들었다. 조선국가에서 이루어진 재해[旱災]에 대한 국가적 대응은 이처럼 서서히 진행되는 旱災가 지닌 특성과 여기에 대한 반복된 경험을 통해 각 단계에서 해야 할 여러 대책들이 적절히 시행된 결과였다. 이를 통해 조선왕조의 정부는 사회·경제적 토대인 농업생산 과정에서 발생되는 旱災의 피해를 최소화해 나갈 수 있었다.
The foremost responsibility of natural disaster administration fulfilled in local regions of the late Choson Dynasty Period was given to Gamsa-Swyeong. Yet the central government dispatched government envoy(御史) in according to circwnstances enhance the efficacy of natural disaster administration. Since the 17th century, the titles of Eosa having such roles were Chinhyuieosa(賑恤御史), Gamjineosa(監賑御史), Wiyu-eosa(慰諭御史[Wiyu-sa:慰諭使]), etc. Such difference in title is related to the change in the role of government envoy. This study categorized these roles into Chinhyuleosa in the period from the reign of King Hyojong to King Hyeonjong, Gamjineosa in the reign of King Sukjong, and Wiyueosa(Wiyusa) in the period from the reign of King Yeongjo to King Jeongjo. Chinhyuleosa in the years of King Hyojong to King Hyeonjong not only managed and oversaw Swyeong of the natural disaster administration in the field, but also practically functioned to save the poor. In a relative sense, as revealed in the title of 'Gamjin(監賑)', Gamjineosa in the years of King Sulgong stressed to a greater degree the function of overseeing the local officials conducting natural disaster administration. The most significant authority of Gamjineosa was right of request for relief supplies (賑資請得權). They actively used such authority to secure relief supplies(賑資) necessary for relieving the poor, to perform a pivotal role in the immediate, timely, and decisive implementation of natural disaster administration. Then from the years of King Yeongjo in the 18thcentwy, right of request for relief supplies, the most significant role of Gamjineosa was limited. This phenomenon was accompanied with a change of titles, resulting in the shift to the title of Wiyueosa (Wiyusa) in the years of King Yeongjo to King Jeongjo. Although they performed the function of G~in to some extent, the aim here was to tour an area to fully identify its circumstances and environment, informing others of government measures and focusing on Wiyu(慰諭) of disaster-stricken people. That such change of titles began to appear after the reign of King Yeongjo meant that the role of government envoy was transforming to have an emphasis on pacification of those in poverty, than directly involving itself in natural disaster administration.
ISSN
1226-8356
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/98776
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.73/76(2016)
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