스마트 도시 환경에서의 공간경험 변화에 따른 디자인 구현체계
Design Plan through Shift of Spatial Experience in the Smart City Environment
- 미술대학 디자인학부
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 디자인학부, 2014. 8. 이순종.
- Design Plan through Shift of Spatial Experience in the Smart City Environment
Jung, Do Kuen
Department of Design
The Graduate School
Seoul National University
The city has been the basic living condition for people and has constantly evolved with changing of a new paradigm. The rapid development of information and communication and transport since the 20th century has raised the need for new competitiveness of these cities. City-nomadic change, represented by Digital Nomadism, has demanded the absorption of the creative people in the city who can continue the economic activity of each city and making a livable city. To achieve this, each city has tried to make a livable city as a top priority through its identity establishment and get beautiful urban environment composition.
Ever since the city development by modern architecture was started, the city has been recognized as a structural model which consists of a constitutive combination of load and building, and constructing city has been formed based on this structural model. A cognitive model of the city image represented by Path, Nod, District, Ladmark and Edge in Image of City, Kevin Lynchs historic work in 1970s, has been utilized in almost all of the citys construction until now as a textbook example, and the city has been planed and established based on the combination of such structural components. However, the city image understood and established as a structural model brought about a lack of understanding of urban space from the perspective of urban dwellers who are the actural pivot of the composition. This is becuase the city as a structural cognitive model is based on a macroscopic point of view as if it were on the plan looking down the city from there. In contrast, the city image that actual urban dwellers understand and experience is made by the analytical point of view based on their practical and microscopic experienece in the space of the city.
In other words, although it is true that the city is a complex structure which consists of huge organismic orders, it is understood and made by the members living in the city, and perceived by the image and experience within the space. This is similar to that people often remember Paris more clearly as a fragrant of small cafeteria in the Mare District, fashion people in the street, and the atmosphere with the lights in Champs Elysees, rather than a giant radial structure with the Arc de Trimphe in its center.
This change in the way of perception of the city by the urban dwellers can be understood to be driven by the change in perception and the way to communicate information undergoing the transfiguration from the age of reason and the structuralist era to the era of image, sensitivity, and de-structuralism, rather than simply due to changes in the image and structure of the city. That is, as Roland Bareutteu explained early in Mythologies to criticize the way to convoy the meaning which takes the system of capitalist society for granted, while the previous city had been produced from the viewpoint of structural aspect, the city is needed to be this, based on the value of modern society, the image of city today is more complex and personal, and is formed based on embodied experience of those who live in the city.
Delirious New York by Rem Koolhaas analyzes Mahattan, New York as an empirical value obtained from the architectural variation (Central Prk, the Skyscrapers), framments of the unfinished pursuing an ideal (Rockefeller Center, the U.N. Building), and non-ideal phenomena (Radio City Music Hall), and shows a new interpretation of New York through the analytic representation with a variety of common images such as maps, photos, postcards, satercolors, and drawings, not as a structural model of the past. That is, the experience of urban dwellers on the city and its image is based on the interpretive perspective on images understood by a picture or a postcard, which is more personal and specific. And, this analytical approach to the city experience demands a new alternative to form another city image different from the past, and this can be done through a variety of programs approach based on more microscopic and personal interpretation.
Also, this interpretation of the experiences in the city needs to start from the understanding of the basic space which has and leads the life of people living there. Fundamentally, space has been the most important environment and background of life in the history of mankind, as a vessel containing the lives of people. This has become increasingly a concept that defines ones life itself including communication with others, from simply an instinctive need to create your own area to the enjoyment and the culture. The space, in the end, is compsed of an organic connection creating a relationship with another person. The space is based on numerous relationships and connections from the thorough personal space like your own bedroom or study room in your house, to the small scale sharing of space like living room with family members and to the city level as well, and even further to the metaverse consisting of infinitely extended information space in todays information environments.
That is why space is very complex and unpredictable concept that is difficult to defind and design only by the functional role from necessity. Our understanding and application of the space is not actually something we have to learn or acquire, but it is a foundation of a natural activity. Nevertheless, we have lived learning the responsibility that we have to take as a user or an experienced within the possibility the space holds or can hold in the communication and connection with others and its relationships.
This becomes a promise to live together from the structural aspect of society and state, and at the same time, the limitation to the personal freedom and the emotional expression. Also, this becomes the culture that defines and represents out lives, and the former tradition which affects the appearance today. Space is where we learn how to live defining and putting a limit on the picture of life and behavior as well as the background where human being exist. In this sense, designing a space is a normative concept of behavioral affordance as the collective results of the most basic peoples immediate reaction or behavior, the image representing the lives of these people, and the background and topic for numerous stories about various people and their reationships handed down as a picture of their lives.
Therefore, the concept of the space has been understood as an ideational concept which is not able to be defined as one. Nevertheless, at the same time, it has been explained from the structural perspective to define both behavioral limits and normative life. It is not importnat whether the cultural difference is caused by the Western architecture and its form and meaning of the space different from that of Oriental architecture, or the other way round. One thing clear is the cyclic circulation where we are affected by the space which we live in, and this life affects the space again. However, it is an undeniable fact that this circulation is not an one-to-one reactive circulation, instead, it is made from the relationships which have been changed and developed by numerous elements and concepts.
The space has also been used as a means of structural control which is important to define ambiguity, inherent complexity, and the relationships with others as well as our own lives. From the collective housing to private housing, and the pattern of the town and the meaning of public space, and the structural bonds and connection they create eventually become the identity of the region, the environment to decide the type of life within it, and the place background to make and share the story of our lives.
In particular, such a personal experience has been transformed by a variety of Information Technology (the IT) since 2000s. As urban growth is accelerated, the facilities and space of the city becomes multifunctional, wider, and super sizing, and requires more systematic and efficient management operation method with the diverse needs of individual citizens based on their experience. This means that the physical, conceptual, and economic complexity and diversity of the city are expanding more rapidly compared to the past, and at the same time, their personal need and desires of experience are expressed in various aspects. This change extremly increases the amount of information in the city, and inevitably requires the accept the various advanced IT. In other words, as the function of the city has been extended, the experience of the urban dwellers becomes more personalized, and this increases information and the diversity of the city to infinity. This infinite expansion of the experience in the city is produced/consumed as a variety of information, and re-produced through various media including the Internet. Information and communication revolution, called the Third Wave, is changing the experience and image of the city and to further the lives of urban dwellers. Unlike the past, almost all of the citys structure is now smart based on digital, so the city life always depends on information. When urban dwellers think about the citys cognitive structural image, they do not come up with natural elements anymore such as mountains and rivers, neither the physical environment such as a landmark including the axis of the city. People visiting a new city for the first time make up the image of the city through the unprecedented three-dimensional digital world provided by Google Maps, and drive following the instruction voice of the navigation expressed in simple language of the urban dwellers.
Road signs are more and more away from the functions in the past, which was graphic guiding sign, and becoming various ITSs which points out the problem of traffic and streets. The light illumination has changed into the image through illumination, brightness, and even videos. Parking system becomes intelligent with the automated parking and automatic guidance to the empty space, and even the highly developed automotive sensor and information processing technology enables automatic parking. Most of citizens always have carry a mobile phone, the personal information communication device, and many of them are smart phones which are beyond the device to make a phone call, but enable the application of information performing the perfect function as a portable device. A personal means of recognition, called One Card, is now utilized as not only the ID card, but also as a digital key for the house, a credit card, and sometimes as a method of payment for public transport such as the bus and subway. All of the energy and information an individual utilizes are saved in the database as a transparent basis for the tax and fees. There are personalized information and advertisement on the IP TV in the public spaces like bus station, and the intelligent traffic information system provides estimated time of arrival and the time required in real-time.
A number of these changes which were unimaginable just 10 years ago have been fundamentally changing our city lives. In particular, the two-way flow of information, represented by the Smart technology, enables the provision of extremely personalized information, and these changes make a huge difference in the formation of the aforementioned city and its empirical images. The physical environment of the city has no more impact to unify the urban dwellers lives and determine the image of the city. Instead, its cultural, aesthetic, and image information holds a place to define the city life.
These requirements are becoming the most important elements in the planning and constructions of Smart Space and Environments which are being developed rapidly. Through the digital information flow of the city, information service based on a variety of state-of-the-art information communication infrastructure and Ubiquitous computing assimilate with the city space in order to increase the convenience of the city life and improve the quality of life, security and welfare by the systematic management of the city. U-City, defined as a new city which enables innovation of various functions of the city such as economic growth through the creation of new industries, directly prescribes the city life not just in the level of information communication management method or service. In addition to that, by forming the image of the city, it becomes an important means of providing experience for the urban dwellers personalized desires.
These changes ultimately bring significant changes to our city lives in the two levels
one is the change in status of the individual urban dweller, and the other one is experienced routine of IT technology. The citizens in the Smart environments, called Ubitizen, are the people who try to innovate their life style through the autonomous intellectualization of their living environments and object, which satisfy their desires not in the virtual space, but realistic ordinary space. Away from a passive activity by a netizen who send/receive life information in the virtual space, they lead a life as a digital nomad who can use information and service they want in any situation like a self-subsistence on the spot by nomads in reality. In other words, a lot of part of the experience in the city are made by information and various digital technologies, and at the same time, these changes will make a difference in the actual experience and image of the city. As mentioned above, provided that the experience in the city is recognized and understood by the individual experience in everyday life of the urban dwellers, the biggest frame of these changes of experience is provided by the Smart environments based on the extreme development of IT technologies.
Nevertheless, the current application of digital technologies in the space environment is not free from the problem of space planning by the structural model in the past. The biggest problem is that this application of Smart technologies is aligned with the simple progress of development, not based on any specific criteria and spatial experience. That is, it is a producer-oriented development just as application of technology development, not as a support to create experience for users, which eventually precludes the creation of space as a substantial empirical dimension of the user, and the reasons are as follows:
First, an attempt to implement the current Smart environments is made in the developer-oriented framework of sensors and network to implement the ubiquitous associated with mere digital and information processing technology, instead of the spatial experience in the city based on the sufficient understanding of users. This ultimately confines the Smart environments construction business which requires enormous expense to a simple network configuration unrelated to the city and its citizens, and also their various experiences, so that it cannot implement as a substantive user experience and image of the space.
Second reason is the failure to take into account the humanities elements including numerous historical, social, cultural, and regional characteristics at the level of the urban as an environment to define and make the users real experiences and life. The implementation of the Smart environment is eventually made by the creation of new urban spaces. In short, from the first space as the physical space, and beyond the second space as the electronic virtual space, in order to make the third space of the ubiquitous, it needs the evolutionary process based on the characteristics of the physical urban space established through a long history. This means to lead the flow of ubiquitous information considering the regional characteristics, not just to build and apply a new service, and also suggest that it has to include the co-evolution process of physical spaces and digital information.
Third, the coldness of technology is emerging due to the excessive application of the technology not yet complete. Characteristic of truly ubiquitous technology is defined as an invisible technology. The 21st century is the era of image together with the era of information and communication. In other words, all the information and substance is consumed as an image, and should be experienced as a beautiful view with coexistence of the virtual and reality.
These problems are mainly due to the fact that the process and method of space construction based on the Smart environment are still confined to the early stages. Accordingly the lack of diverse discourse on the Smart space with coexistence of information and substance as a true meaning of the Third space, and the lack of research on the plan for practice as well. The development of new technologies represented by the Smart and ubiquitous is not just a phenomenon confined to appear in specific area such as the flow and use of information. It should be understood as an action of lifestyle to bring infinite change throughout our society and as a huge paradigm shift to change the experience in the personal space, social relation, and the life in the city. It should be replaced by the Smart-Space based on the users practical experience, so that it is ultimately embodied as the application of information space based on the understanding of the practical experience of urban space.
This paper finds the solutions for applying the normative characteristics and the Smart space, which is the information space based on the contextual experience of the real user in the paradigm shift of the era–the creation of new space by the digital technology–, and gives shape to the possibilities of the planning and application to the design process.