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Molecular Phylogenetic Status and Ecological Characteristics of Phayres Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei) in Myanmar
미얀마에 서식하는 Phayre's Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei)의 분자계통학적 위치와 생태학적 특성

DC Field Value Language
dc.contributor.advisorLee Woo-Shin-
dc.contributor.author탄트나메이레이-
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-13T17:44:55Z-
dc.date.available2017-07-13T17:44:55Z-
dc.date.issued2013-08-
dc.identifier.other000000012986-
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10371/121101-
dc.description학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 산림과학부 산림환경학전공, 2013. 8. 이우신.-
dc.description.abstractPhayres leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei) is a medium sized primate and endemic to tropical forests in Asia. It is categorized as Endangered by IUCN and listed as CITES Appendix II species. Although three subspecies (T. p. phayrei, T. p. crepusculus, and T. p. shanicus) have been identified, little is known about the taxonomic status and ecology of Phayres leaf monkey in the region. This study aimed at confirming the taxonomic status of Phayres leaf monkey in Myanmar and also understanding its behaviors and habitat uses in order to provide species conservation and habitat management.
This study was the first molecular work using non-invasive samples (hair and feces) and non-destructive sample (bones from dead animal) to investigate the phylogenetic status of Phayres leaf monkey in Myanmar particularly Popa Mountain Park (PMP) and Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park (AKNP). Two DNA markers, nuclear protamine P1 (Prm1) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b) genes were used. The population from PMP is more closely related to the subspecies T. p. shanicus from the southwest China, while that from AKNP cluster together with subspecies T. p. phayrei from the northeast India.
Three groups of Phayres leaf monkey (mean 41  0.67, 41  0.58 and 21  0.67 individuals for group-1, group-2, and group-3, respectively) were recorded in PMP. The monkey highly occupied semi-evergreen forest with little or no disturbances (occupancy value:  = 0.7679, SE = 0.182) in PMP. The occurrence of monkey was positively related with the forest stand characteristics (Spearmans rank correlation: tree density (tree/plot): s = 0.305, P = 0.039
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dc.description.abstractbasal area (m2/plot): s = 0.469, P < 0.0001-
dc.description.abstractmean tree height (m): s = 0.583, P < 0.0001).
The availability of food resources was significantly different between the forest stands occupied by Phayres leaf monkey and those were not used by the monkey. In this study, food plants for the monkey consisted of fourteen different families including Moraceae and Myrtaceae. Moreover, Phayres leaf monkey also eats climbers (Cissus vitiginea, Piper attenuatum and Smilax perfoliata) which have not been recorded elsewhere in its range.
Phayres leaf monkeys spent most of their time for feeding (54%) followed by resting (32%), travelling (7%) and other activites (7%). The monkeys travelled randomly on ground and tree strata (Kruskal-Wallis H test: H = 3.527, df = 4, P = 0.474) but they displayed non-randomly for feeding, resting and other behviors (i.e grooming, playing) (Kruskal-Wallis H test: feeding: H = 23.214, df = 4, P < 0.0001
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dc.description.abstractresting: H = 23.291, df = 4, P < 0.0001-
dc.description.abstractothers: H = 11.107, df = 4, P = 0.025).
Phayres leaf monkey spent slightly more time for resting in winter (31.65%) than that in summer (28.73%) and rainy (27.63%). Two feeding peaks were recognized in the early morning (0600 – 0800 h) and another in the late evening (1600 -1800 h). However, in terms of the pooled data set for all time intervals, there were no significant differences except for other behaviors (i.e. grooming or playing) (Kruskal-Wallis H test: H = 13.28, df = 5, P = 0.021). The study suggests that seasonal and time differences will not affect the behavior of animals if there were enough food resources at their habitats for a year round.
Habitat suitability for Phayres leaf monkey in PMP was created using the landscape habitat suitability index (HSI) model. The highly suitable habitat (5.28%) was lying to the northern part of PMP, followed by suitable (12.63%), moderately suitable (23.54%), least suitable (26.31%) and unsuitable (32.24%) habitats. The outputs of habitat suitability map were easily understandable and it can be used for park management plans particularly conserving the suitable habitats for Phayres leaf monkey.
In conclusion, taxonomic information provided by this study can be used as basis to conserve genetic resources of threatened species particularly Phayres leaf monkey from PMP as this population revealed genetic characters different from other subspecies of T. phayrei. Moreover, information on the food resources and the suitable habitats of Phayres leaf monkey can be considered for upgrading the park management plan by conserving main food resources and protecting the suitable habitats.
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dc.description.tableofcontentsAbstract i
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vii
List of Figures x
List of Appendices xxi
Chapter I. General Introduction and Literature Review 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Study objectives 5
1.3 Literature Review 7
1.3.1 Phayres leaf monkey 7
1.3.2 Taxonomic status of the Phayres leaf monkey 13
1.3.3 Phylogenetic analysis for species conservation 16
1.3.4 Behavior and habitat use of the monkey 18
1.3.5 Habitat suitability modelling of the monkey 21
1.4 Methodology 23
1.4.1 Study areas 23
1.4.2 Data collection and structure of the dissertation 31
Chapter II. Molecular Phylogenetic Status of Phayres Leaf Monkey 33
2.1 Introduction 33
2.2 Materials and methods 39
2.2.1 Study sites 39
2.2.2 Sample collection 41
2.2.3 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) markers 43
2.2.4 DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing 47
2.2.5 Phylogenetic analysis 53
2.3 Results and discussion 56
2.3.1 PCR, sequencing and genetic polymorphism 56
2.3.2 Nuclear protamine P1 (Prm1) gene 58
2.3.3 Mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b) gene 61
2.3.4 Comparison of the results from Prm1 and Cyt-b analyses 66
2.4 Conclusion 67
Chapter III. Population, Habitat Use and Behavior of Phayres Leaf Monkey in Popa Mountain Park 68
3.1 Introduction 68
3.2 Materials and methods 71
3.2.1 Study area 71
3.2.2 Data collection 74
3.2.3 Statistical analysis 83
3.3 Results and discussion 91
3.3.1 Vegetation and disturbances 91
3.3.2 Population and occupancy of Phayres leaf monkey 99
3.3.3 Habitat use of Phayres leaf monkey 103
3.3.4 Ground and vertical tree strata use 111
3.3.5 Seasonal and daily behaviors 117
3.4 Conclusion 122
Chapter IV. Modelling Habitat Suitability of Phayres Leaf Monkey in Popa Mountain Park 123
4.1 Introduction 123
4.2 Materials and methods 126
4.2.1 Vegetation types classification 126
4.2.2 Topographic and disturbance data extraction 139
4.2.3 Modelling habitat suitability of Phayres leaf monkey 144
4.3 Results and discussion 156
4.3.1 Spatial extent of vegetation types generated by maximum likelihood classification (MLC) approach 156
4.3.2 Habitat suitability of Phayres leaf monkey 159
4.4 Conclusion 164
Chapter V. Conclusions 165
Literature Cited 170
Appendices 197
Abstract in Korean (국문 초록) 213
Abstract in Myanmar 217
Acknowledgements 221
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dc.formatapplication/pdf-
dc.format.extent17075802 bytes-
dc.format.mediumapplication/pdf-
dc.language.isoen-
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.subjectdiurnal behavior-
dc.subjecthabitat suitability-
dc.subjecthabitat uses-
dc.subjectnon-invasive sample-
dc.subjectPhayre’s leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei)-
dc.subjectphylogenetic-
dc.subject.ddc634-
dc.titleMolecular Phylogenetic Status and Ecological Characteristics of Phayres Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei) in Myanmar-
dc.title.alternative미얀마에 서식하는 Phayre's Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei)의 분자계통학적 위치와 생태학적 특성-
dc.typeThesis-
dc.description.degreeDoctor-
dc.citation.pages244-
dc.contributor.affiliation농업생명과학대학 산림과학부(산림환경학전공)-
dc.date.awarded2013-08-
Appears in Collections:
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학)Dept. of Forest Sciences (산림과학부)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._산림과학부)
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