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Evaluating the role of dual PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitor in acute myeloid leukemia

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의과대학 의학과
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서울대학교 대학원
AMLPI3K/Akt/mTOR pathwaydual inhibitorsynergism
학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 의학과 분자종양의학 전공, 2012. 8. 안효섭.
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway integrating signals from multiple receptor tyrosine kinases has been firmly established as a major determinant for cell growth, proliferation, and survival in a wide array of solid cancers. PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and contributes to survival and drug-resistance of AML through various mechanisms. BEZ235 is one of the most promising dual inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR currently under clinical development in solid tumor area. In this study, the potential of BEZ235 was investigated as antileukemic agent using alone or with cytarabine arabinoside (AraC) as combination regimen.
AML cell lines KG-1, MV 4-11, THP-1 and HL60 were treated with AraC, BEZ235 and combination regimen with various mixed ratio. BEZ235 effectively inhibited leukemic cell growth with similar range of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values among different cell lines. Apoptosis was induced gradually as BEZ235 concentration increased, but significant level of apoptosis was not shown even at higher concentration beyond IC50 value. Then, AraC-resistant MV4-11 and THP-1 cell lines were chosen to investigate interaction between BEZ235 and AraC. Using CalcuSyn software based on Chou and Talalay analysis, Combination Index (CI) value was calculated in each combination regimen. Moderate to strong synergism was shown and it was well maintained as combination ratio of AraC versus BEZ235 gradually decreased from 20:1 to 1,000:1. BEZ235 reduced resistance to AraC when it was added as combination regimen, and significance of combination effect changed according to AraC concentration. When antileukemic effect was compared among combination regimens with different schedules, synergism was maximized when BEZ235 was pretreated before AraC administration. This means BEZ235 sensitizes leukemic cells to apoptotic effect of AraC.
Genetic alteration in PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is an attractive target to investigate and dual pathway inhibitor BEZ235 has potential to maximize AML treatment through sensitization of leukemic cells to conventional drug. Exact understanding for pathway to control leukemic cells and effective inhibition of key controlling pathways with innovative new drugs will be crucial to make huge progress in AML treatment.
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