Between Beijing and Bucharest: Case Analyses of Housing Policy Changes in Socialist and Postsocialist Cities for Implications for Pyongyang’s Transition
베이징과 부카레스트 사이에서: 사회주의 및 포스트사회주의 공공주택정책 사례연구를 통한 평양의 주택전환 방향연구

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dc.description학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 환경대학원 : 환경계획학과(도시및지역계획전공), 2014. 2. 전상인.-
dc.description.abstractThis research attempts to investigate the history and spatiality of public housing developments in Bucharest, Romania and Beijing, China, in the context of economic reform and system transition for the purpose of providing insights on the future housing reform and transition in Pyongyang, North Korea. This research will base its research target on the socialist public housing estates in Pyongyang, Bucharest and Beijing with a temporal boundary from the start of the socialist regime until roughly 20 years after the initial reform of the economy and polity. The key questions this study will attempt to answer are: first of all, what will be the relationship between the political nature of regime and its approach toward structural reforms in housing? (the speed and direction of reform and institutional-policy approach)-
dc.description.abstractsecondly, what will be the dialectics of institutional-policy approach and social-spatial changes and problems in public housing estates? (changes in urban spatial structure, residential landscape, public housing estates, tenant social composition, and all of its problems)-
dc.description.abstractand thirdly, what will be the possible strategies to cope with the existing and speculated problems during the transition from the viewpoint of public intervention? (Urban Renewal VS Urban Rehabilitation). In order to answer these questions, this research will first look at the larger question of system transition and economic reform to understand the structural conditions affecting the national system changes and urban spatial changes. Then it will look at the historical example of each city of Beijing and Bucharest, with its background of national development, housing policy, and spatial changes in both socialist and postsocialist eras. It will then focus on the problems that have arisen out of the system transition/reform and try to provide solutions to the problems. At last, it will try to apply the lessons learned to the historical and current situation facing Pyongyang’s public housing developments.
The key lessons from the research are that for the public housing provision under transitional context: first of all, Pyongyang’s change may more likely follow the path of Romania (Bucharest) than China (Beijing) both politically and economically due to the political nature of the regime change, with the decentralization of government powers by taking on more marketized roles
dc.description.abstractsecondly, mass privatization, capitalization, and commodification of socialist public housing may result in problems of residential differentiation, social filtering, and gentrification of the city center-
dc.description.abstractthirdly, quick privatization of housing assets in a form of public sale to sitting tenants may likely occur within the context of transfer of old communist powers and networks and restitution to former pre-socialist owners will be difficult-
dc.description.abstractfourthly, there may be a sharp drop in the provision of social housing in the form of public and private rental housing against the backdrop of massive homeownership campaign with the resulting consequences of housing unit deterioration-
dc.description.abstractfifthly, there may be a breakdown of workplace-residence proximity and the evolution of microdistricts (subdivision, gentrification, and gating) to take on new marketized functions while the middle and lower class groups will continually depend on these socialist public housing estates for their housing welfare-
dc.description.abstractsixthly, the issue of incremental urban rehabilitation rather than large-scale urban renewal in the form of wholesale demolition and redevelopment may be more pressing for the lower-income households-
dc.description.abstractand seventhly, there may be large migration of populations in and out of Pyongyang, resulting in migrant enclaves and shantytowns in inner city and peripheral locations and increasing pressure on social housing.-
dc.description.tableofcontentsI. Introduction

1. Research Background
2. Research Objective
3. System Transition Vs Economic Reform
a) Revolution VS Evolution: “Shock Therapy” VS “Gradualism”
b) Decentralization and Devolution of State Power – the Rise of the Local Government
4. System Transition/Economic Reform & Housing Reform
a) Politics of Housing Privatization
b) Common Problems and Goals

II. Beijing

Chinese Housing Policy: Socialist Period and Beijing

1. Background: Nationalization, Industrialization, Urbanization and the Housing Question
2. The Political History and Policies of Socialist Public Housing
a) The Politics and Policies of Socialist Public Housing in Beijng and China: A General Overview
b) Periodization of Public Housing Policy and Spatial Developments
3. The History of Socialist Public Housing Developments and its Impacts on Beijing

Chinese Housing Policy: Reform Era and Beijing

1. Background: Economic Reform and the Changing Interrelationships between the State, Market and Society
2. Evolution of Housing Policies under Economic Reform
a) Transition Strategy of Housing Reform: Privatization, Commodification, and Capitalization
b) Housing Institutional Reforms and Policies: A Historical Overview
c) Periodization of Housing Reforms
d) Social and Spatial Consequences of Housing Reform
3. Housing Governance and Institutional Change: Evolution of Work Units and State Owned Enterprise Reforms
a) Work Unit
b) SOEs
4. The Fate and Future of Socialist Public Housing in Beijing in the Reform Era
a) Transformation of Residential Landscape in Beijing
b) Rapid Urbanization and the Floating Population: Increasing Pressure on Housing
c) Social and Spatial Conseuquences Left of the Socialist Public Housing Estates: Problems of Urban Renewal
d) Future Potential of Socialist Public Housing Estates via Planned Intervention: Urban Rehabilitation

III. Bucharest

Romanian Housing Policy: Socialist Period and Bucharest

Early Socialist Housing Period (1949~65): Modernization, Urbanization and Systemization under the Early Communist Leadership of Gheorghiu-Dej

1. Background
a) Industrialization, Urbanization and Systemization: the Romanian National Housing Developments
b) Bucharest: from Paris of the East to a Socialist City
2. The Political Economy and History of Socialist Housing
3. Socialist Housing Developments in Bucharest
a) Bucharest
b) Cvartal
c) Microraion
d) Case Study: Balta Alba

Late Socialist Housing Period (1965~1989): Systemization, Ceaushima and Bucharest

1. Background
a) Industrialization, Urbanization and Housing Politics
b) Between Beijing, Pyongyang and Bucharest
2. First Phase of Systemization: 1965~1980
3. Second Phase of Systemization: 1980~1989

Romanian Housing Policy: Capitalist Period and Bucharest

1. Background: Politics of Regime Change and Housing Privatization in Romania
2. Housing Policy Changes under System Transition in SEE countries: Strategies, Policies and Problems
a) Transition Strategy of Housing Policy: “Shock Absorber” and Privatization
b) Housing Tenure Change and Rental Sector Change
c) Problems of Housing Privatization and Maintenance
3. Housing Policy Changes in Transitional Romania
a) Background: Privatization Policy
b) Public Sale VS Restitution
c) Social Housing Policy
4. Fate and Future of Socialist Housing Estates in Romania and Bucharest in the Capitalist Period
a) Transformation of Residential Landscape in Bucharest
b) Social and Spatial Challenges Left of the Socialist Housing Estates
c) Future Potential of Socialist Housing Estates via Planned Intervention

IV. Pyongyang

1. Background: Urban Planning and Urban Development in North Korea
2. Politics, Institutions and Policies, and Spatial Strategy of Public Housing Developments in North Korea
a) Politics of National Housing Developments
b) Institutions and Policies: Planning, Construction, Redistribution and Management
c) History: Evolution of Housing Policy and Residential Developments in Pyongyang
d) Spatial Strategy: Social Condenser and Microdistrict
3. Pyoungyang: Spatiality, Historicity and Sociality
a) Spatiality: Urban Spatial Structure and Residential Areas of Pyongyang
b) History: Housing Developments in Pyongyang
c) Sociality: Pyongyang Residents

V. Conclusion

1. Retrospect: Recapitulation of the Romanian and Chinese Experiences of Socialist and Post socialist Housing Developments
2. Prospect: Anticipation of North Korean Public Housing Management and Developments in Transition
3. Afterword: A Race Back to the Future for Postsocialist Cities
dc.format.extent3868350 bytes-
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.subjectPublic Housing-
dc.subjectSystem Transition-
dc.subjectEconomic Reform-
dc.subjectHousing Policy-
dc.subjectUrban Renewal-
dc.titleBetween Beijing and Bucharest: Case Analyses of Housing Policy Changes in Socialist and Postsocialist Cities for Implications for Pyongyang’s Transition-
dc.title.alternative베이징과 부카레스트 사이에서: 사회주의 및 포스트사회주의 공공주택정책 사례연구를 통한 평양의 주택전환 방향연구-
dc.contributor.affiliation환경대학원 환경계획학과-
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Graduate School of Environmental Studies (환경대학원)Dept. of Environmental Planning (환경계획학과)Theses (Master's Degree_환경계획학과)
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