S-Space Graduate School of Public Administration (행정대학원) Dept. of Public Enterprise Policy (공기업정책학과) Theses (Master's Degree_공기업정책학과)
공기업 종사자의 동기특성과 윤리의식에 관한 연구 -한국토지주택공사를 중심으로-
A study on motive characteristic and ethical consciousness of employees in the public enterprise - Focused on Korea Land & Housing Corporation
|dc.description||학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 행정대학원 : 공기업정책학과, 2014. 8. 정광호.||-|
|dc.description.abstract||주인-대리인 이론에 따르면 정책수행을 정부로부터 재위임 받은 공기업의 도덕적 해이를 방지하기는 정부의 그것보다 더욱 어렵다. 이러한 이론적 논의를 떠나서라도 공기업의 도덕적 해이가 심화된 각종 부정부패에 따른 사건사고는 종종 사회적 이슈가 되고 있다. 정부는 현재 이를 방지하기 위해 정부경영평가를 통한 인센티브 제공과 같은 사전 유인책과 국정감사 및 감사원 감사를 통한 사후 통제 수단 등을 운용하고 있다. 그러나, 공기업 종사자의 비윤리적 행태가 지속적으로 사회의 비판을 받고 있다는 점은 아직까지도 공기업의 비윤리적 문제 발생에 대한 근본적인 원인과 해결책이 마련되지 못했다는 반증이라고 하겠다.
본 연구에서는 이와 같은 공기업의 윤리문제에 대한 근본원인을 공기업 종사자 각 개인의 미시적 심리상태에서 찾고자 하였다. 즉, 공기업 종사자 각 개인의 업무수행동기가 윤리의식과 상관관계가 있을 것이라는 가설 하에 이를 검증하기 위한 실증적 연구를 실시하였다. 보다 세부적으로는 모집단을 한국토지주택공사 재직 정규직원으로 하여 총 226개의 표본을 대상으로 연구를 진행하였으며, 공공서비스 동기를 공익몰입․희생정신․동정심이라는 세 가지 하위차원으로 구성하고, 내재적 동기를 성취감과 일 자체의 즐거움이라는 두 가지 하위차원으로, 외재적 동기를 보수의 가치 인식과 인정에 대한 기대라는 두 가지 하위차원으로 구성하여 독립변수로 설정하였다. 종속변수는 공기업 종사자의 윤리의식으로 설정하였으며 직무윤리의식과 청렴윤리의식이라는 두 가지 하위차원으로 구성하여 각 독립변수들과의 상관관계를 분석하였다.
연구결과, 공기업 종사자에게는 공공서비스가 동기가 가장 우월하고 그 다음으로 외재적 동기와 내재적 동기 수준이 높은 특성을 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 윤리의식과의 상관관계는 공공서비스 동기와 윤리의식이 유의한 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 각 하위차원간의 상관관계는 공익몰입․성취감․인정에 대한 기대가 직무윤리의식과 유의한 상관관계를 보였고, 공익몰입․인정에 대한 기대가 청렴윤리의식과 유의한 상관관계를 나타냈다. 아울러, 통제변수 가운데 하나인 포상경험 또한 청렴윤리의식과 유의한 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다.
본 연구결과를 종합하여 본다면, 공공서비스 동기의 개념을 활용하여 공기업에게 요구되는 윤리적 인재상을 구체화시킬 필요가 있다. 즉, 공공서비스 동기의 개념과 측정도구를 공기업 채용절차부터 교육․훈련 프로그램 및 리더의 동기부여 과정에 이르기까지 적극 활용해야 한다. 채용단계에서는 인․적성 검사를 통해 공공서비스 동기 수준이 높은 지원자를 선별하고, 직원 교육 및 훈련단계에서는 공익수행자로서의 책임감과 자부심을 고양시키기 위한 프로그램을 실시하는 한편, 리더들의 공공서비스 동기부여 노력이 지속된다면 공기업 종사자들의 윤리의식 수준을 한층 강화시킬 수 있을 것이다.
또한, 공기업 종사자의 내재적 동기 수준이 낮은 만큼, 업무만족으로부터 비롯되는 생산성 증대와 서비스 질 향상을 위해 공기업 종사자들의 자부심과 성취감을 고양시킬 필요가 있다고 판단된다. 이러한 내적 만족감은 정부와 국민의 평가로부터 비롯되는 만큼, 공기업이 추구하는 목표인 공공성과 수익성이라는 동전의 양면과 같은 가치를 균형 있게 평가해주려는 사회적 노력과 더불어 정부의 공기업 평가체계에 대한 개선이 필요하다고 하겠다.
마지막으로, 포상제도를 윤리적 문제발생을 예방하기 위한 사전 조치로 적극 이용할 필요성이 있다. 지금과 같이 윤리적 문제가 발생하고 나서야 사후적으로 해당자를 징계처분 하기 보다는, 조직으로부터 인정을 받고 좋은 평판을 유지하려는 기대심리를 적극 활용하여 사전에 활발한 포상이 이루어 진다면, 조직 구성원의 비윤리적 문제발생을 사전에 예방하고 보다 높은 수준의 윤리의식을 기대할 수 있으리라고 본다.
|dc.description.abstract||According to the principal-agent theory, it is more difficult to prevent moral hazard of public enterprise which is commissioned to perform policy from government than to prevent moral hazard of government. Putting aside such theoretical discussion, events and accidents came from various injustice and corruption which were deepened in moral hazard of the public enterprise are frequently on social issues. For preventing such injustice and corruption, our government operates previous carrots and stick such as providing incentive through management assessment, and after control means like inspection of the administration and audit by the Board of Audit and inspection. But non-ethical behavior of employees in public enterprise is continuously criticized. This would be the counterevidence that fundamental cause and solution about non-ethical behavior of employees in the public enterprise has not been arranged.
The study tried to seek fundamental cause of ethical problem of the public enterprise from microscopic psychological state of each individual working in the public enterprise. That is, with an assumption that motive to work of each individual in the public enterprise has correlation with ethical consciousness, this positive research to test the assumption was carried out. Specifically, population was present regular employees in Korea Land & Housing Corporation and study was progressed with 226 samples in total. Public service motive was composed of three sub-dimensions such as commitment to public interest․ self-sacrifice․compassion. Inner motive was composed of two sub-dimensions such as sense of achievement and pleasure of work itself. External motive was composed of two sub-dimensions such as recognition on value of pay and expectation on acknowledgement. And these motives were set as independent variables. Dependent variable was set as ethical consciousness of employees in public enterprise and the variable was composed of two sub-dimensions such as job ethical consciousness and clean ethical consciousness. After then, correlation with independent variables was analyzed.
As results of the study, it appeared that for employees in the public enterprise, public service motive was the most superior and next high was external motive and inner motive level. For correlation with ethical consciousness, public service motive had significant correlation with ethical consciousness. In correlation between sub-dimensions, commitment to public interest․sense of achievement․ expectation on acknowledgement had significant correlation with job ethical consciousness. And commitment to public interest․expectation on acknowledgement had significant correlation with clean ethical consciousness. Furthermore, awarded experience which is one of control variables also had significant correlation with clean ethical consciousness.
When synthesizing the study results, it would be necessary to embody ethical talent image required in public enterprise by using concept of public service motive. That is, concept and measuring tool of public service motive should be actively utilized from recruiting process to education․ training program and motivation process for leader. In the recruiting stage, through personality and aptitude test, applicants with high public service motive level should be selected and in the education and training stage for employees, program to raise responsibility and pride as a person to practice public interest should be carried out. On the other hand, if leader's efforts to provide public service motive are continued, it would be possible to strengthen ethical consciousness level of employees in the public enterprise.
And it seems that inner motive level of employees in the public enterprise is low. Therefore, it would be needed to raise the pride and sense of achievement of employees in the public enterprise to increase productivity and improve service quality oriented from satisfaction on job. Such inner satisfaction is oriented from assessment of government and national people. So it would be necessary to do social efforts to appreciate value like both sides of coin such as public interests and profitability that public enterprises pursues with balance. In addition, the improvement of assessment system for public enterprises by government is needed.
Finally, it is necessary to actively use reward system as previous action to prevent ethical problem. If active reward is made by using expectation psychology that wants to be recognized from an organization and to maintain good reputation rather than to do disciplinary measure against related person after ethical problem happens like now, it is expected that non-ethical problem can be prevented in advance and higher ethical consciousness can be drawn.
|dc.description.tableofcontents||제 1 장 서 론 ··························································· 1
제 1 절 연구 배경과 목적 ··················································· 1
1. 연구의 배경··········································································· 1
2. 연구의 필요성······································································· 3
3. 연구의 목적··········································································· 4
제 2 절 연구 범위와 방법 ··················································· 5
1. 연구 범위 ··············································································· 5
2. 연구 방법 ··············································································· 5
제 2 장 이론적 논의와 선행연구 검토 ··············· 8
제 1 절 공공서비스 동기에 대한 고찰 ···························· 8
1. 공공서비스 동기의 개념····················································· 8
2. 공공서비스 동기의 구성요인 ············································· 10
3. 공공서비스 동기에 대한 선행연구 ··································· 16
제 2 절 직무동기에 대한 고찰 ·········································· 18
1. 직무동기의 개념 ··································································· 18
2. 직무동기의 구성요인··························································· 20
3. 직무동기에 대한 선행연구················································· 22
제 3 절 윤리의식에 대한 고찰 ·········································· 24
1. 윤리의식의 개념 ··································································· 24
2. 공공부문 윤리의식의 구성요인 ········································· 27
3. 윤리의식에 대한 선행연구················································· 29
제 3 장 연구의 설계 ················································· 32
제 1 절 연구 문제 및 모형 ················································· 32
1. 연구문제················································································· 32
2. 연구모형················································································· 32
제 2 절 연구가설 ··································································· 34
1. 공공서비스 동기와 윤리의식 측면 ··································· 34
2. 내재적 동기와 윤리의식 측면··········································· 34
3. 외재적 동기와 윤리의식 측면··········································· 35
제 3 절 조사설계 ··································································· 36
1. 자료수집 및 조사대상 ························································· 36
2. 변수의 조작적 정의····························································· 37
3. 변수 측정도구······································································· 42
4. 자료의 분석방법 ··································································· 44
제 4 장 조사결과의 분석과 논의 ·························· 45
제 1 절 표본의 특성 ····························································· 45
제 2 절 측정도구의 평가 ····················································· 49
1. 독립변수의 타당도 및 신뢰도··········································· 49
2. 종속변수의 타당도 및 신뢰도··········································· 54
제 3 절 조사결과의 분석 ····················································· 58
1. 기술통계분석 ········································································· 58
2. 상관관계분석 ········································································· 60
3. 회귀분석················································································· 63
제 4 절 가설검증 결과 ························································· 68
1. 가설검증 결과······································································· 68
2. 검증결과 종합······································································· 70
제 5 장 결 론 ··························································· 72
제 1 절 연구결과 요약 ························································· 72
제 2 절 연구의 함의와 정책적 제언 ································ 74
1. 연구의 함의··········································································· 74
2. 정책적 제언··········································································· 77
제 3 절 연구한계 및 향후 연구과제 ································ 80
참고문헌 ········································································ 82
부 록(설문지) ···························································· 87
Abstract ········································································ 91
|dc.subject||public service motive||-|
|dc.title||공기업 종사자의 동기특성과 윤리의식에 관한 연구 -한국토지주택공사를 중심으로-||-|
|dc.title.alternative||A study on motive characteristic and ethical consciousness of employees in the public enterprise - Focused on Korea Land & Housing Corporation||-|
|dc.contributor.AlternativeAuthor||Yoo, Ji Young||-|
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- Graduate School of Public Administration (행정대학원)Dept. of Public Enterprise Policy (공기업정책학과)Theses (Master's Degree_공기업정책학과)