S-Space College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원) Dept. of Medicine (의학과) Theses (Master's Degree_의학과)
(The) relationship of vitamin D and smoking with inflammatory markers in the urban elderly
도시지역 노인에서 비타민 D와 염증표지자의 관련성 및 비타민 D와 흡연의 상호작용
- 의과대학 의학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 의학과 예방의학 전공, 2016. 2. 홍윤철.
Epidemiological studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory disease. Smoking is a well-known risk factor for inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effect of vitamin D deficiency and smoking on inflammation. This study aims to investigate the interaction of vitamin D and smoking with inflammatory markers in the urban elderly.
We used data from the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel Study, which began in August 2008 and ended in August 2010, and included 560 Koreans 60 years and older living in Seoul. Data was collected via questionnaires that included items about smoking status at the first visit. Vitamin D levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) counts were repeatedly measured up to three times. To explore the association of vitamin D concentrations with inflammatory markers, we used generalized estimating equations.
The association of vitamin D and hs-CRP was significant after adjusting for known confounders (β = –0.080, p = 0.041). After separate analysis by smoking status, the association of vitamin D deficiency and hs-CRP in smokers was stronger than that in nonsmokers (smokers: β = –0.375, p = 0.013, nonsmokers: β = –0.060, p = 0.150). Smoking status was an effect modifier that changed the association between vitamin D deficiency and hs-CRP (interaction estimate: –0.254, p = 0.032). Vitamin D was not significantly associated with WBC count (β = 0.003, p = 0.805).
Vitamin D deficiency was associated with hs-CRP in the urban elderly. Smoking status was an effect modifier of this association. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with WBC count.