S-Space College of Pharmacy (약학대학) Natural Products Research Institute(천연물과학연구소) Journal Papers (저널논문_천연물과학연구소)
Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles
- Issue Date
- Springer Open
- Nanoscale Research Letters, 13(1):23
- Platycodi Radix ; Platycodon grandiflorum ; Platycodon saponins ; Platycodin D ; Green synthesis ; Gold ; nanoparticles ; Silver nanoparticles ; Catalytic activity ; Curvature-dependent evolution ; AFM images
A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of –OH, aromatic C=C, C–O, and C–H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy reported in this study using saponins as reducing agents will pave new roads to develop novel nanomaterials with versatile applications.