고등학교 오케스트라의 사회적 관계 연구
A Study on the Social Relationships of High School Orchestras

DC Field Value Language
dc.description학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 사범대학 협동과정 음악교육전공, 2019. 2. 오희숙.-
dc.description.abstractAdolescence is a critical time in life that forms ones ego identity with the existential question, Who am I? It is a challenge for the society, country and humanity to help adolescents grow into proper adults by making them form proper ego identity. Ego identity is formed by social relations with others in a society to which an individual belongs, and social relations experienced in adolescence establish a foothold for adolescents to become amicable members of the society as adults and have a crucial impact on their social growth.

Orchestra is what represents social relations in music activities. An orchestra is a large ensemble in which players of different instruments create a harmony of sound under the direction of the conductor. The orchestra fundamentally has a social character because members with different personalities interact with one another and create a harmony, striving to achieve a common musical goal. In particular, a school orchestra that has the features of a club in the school settings has a great social significance, as students undergo the process of sharing experiences and goals and striving for common musical accomplishments. The social significance gained by students through such school orchestra activities fundamentally originates from the social relations among the members. Thus, it is necessary to closely examine this with focus on social relations among students within the orchestra. Accordingly, this study determines the characteristics of social relations in a high school orchestra and examines the context and meaning thereof.

To analyze social relations among members of the high school orchestra, this study is conducted based on the theoretical grounds of the four fundamental forms of social relations of humans in the relational models theory by Fiske(1991): communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Communal sharing in the relational models theory refers to relationship based on the sense of belonging as a community, and authority ranking indicates relationship according to rank, authority or order. Equality matching refers to equal relationship based on reciprocity, and market pricing indicates relationship according to efficiency and interests.

In sum, the objective of this study is to analyze the features of aspects in which social relations appear among students that are members of a high school orchestra based on the relational models theory, focusing on the context of in-depth interviews. Thus, this study examines the fundamental essence, features and significance of social relations among members of the high school orchestra.

To contextually analyze the features of aspects in which social relations appear among students that are members of a high school orchestra based on the relational models theory, this study established a framework of early theories based on the relational models theory and formed a questionnaire accordingly. Then, the questionnaire was finalized after validation by experts and revisions, and the finalized questionnaire was used to conduct interviews, which consisted of individual interviews and group interviews through focus groups. Before the interviews, the participants listened to the objectives of the research and use of collected data, and submitted their consent to participate. The participants were 17 students selected through purposive sampling among those who belong to the school orchestras of 7 selected high schools that meet all the selection criteria based on the 2017 Casebook of Orchestra Activities. After the interviews, the data was analyzed through content analysis, which is an inductive method of data analysis.

The research questions and key results of analysis are as follows.

First, what aspects are shown in the relationship based on community spirit? Members of a high school orchestra had collective identity in which they identify their own identities with the orchestra. Moreover, they tended to share an emotional bond among themselves beyond musical collaboration, and as a result could exchange help in terms of both musical and emotional aspects. Furthermore, they tended to consider themselves similar to one another and thus like a family, based on which they form solidarity. This relationship among the students is due to their sharing of purposes, experiences, musical language and key interests, and sharing is a unique environment that characterizes high school orchestras.

Second, what is the standard for the formation of social class within a high school orchestra? There was a class formed within the orchestra depending on the duty or position. There were positions like bandmaster, concert master and principal in the high school orchestras, which were ranked in the order of bandmaster, concert master and principal. The existence of such social class in the high school orchestra enables members to collaborate and maintain the order. Moreover, there was also a class formed according to participation and involvement in the orchestra aside from the positions.

Third, how does equal relationship based on reciprocal exchange appear? High school orchestras showed a phenomenon of reciprocal exchange in which students tended to provide help to their juniors just as they received help from their seniors. High school orchestras tended to establish and maintain the relationship of equality matching by making equal efforts in achieving the common goal of music performance. Through this relationship of equality matching, students in a high school orchestra could strengthen their solidarity with the identity as equal members of the group.

Fourth, what are the utilitarian values given to orchestra activities by students in a high school orchestra? The utilitarian values obtained by the students from orchestra activities in the social aspect were increased sociality, motivation for life, and close friendship. Members of a high school orchestra could improve their sociality in the process of making efforts to build a harmony in the musical and relational aspects. Moreover, the high school orchestra can be a driving force for adolescents to have a passion for life and pursue new dreams by providing them with the experience of warm human relations and sense of achievement through music performance. Furthermore, students can develop close friendship based on the community spirit formed among the members of the orchestra. The students laid stress on close friendship as a utilitarian value obtained from the orchestra, which emphasizes the importance of social relations in a high school orchestra.

Fifth, what is the context and meaning of social relations in a high school orchestra? It was found that members of the high school orchestras laid more stress in the community value than individual value while participating in the orchestra. Moreover, comparing the four forms of social relations found in the students, community spirit and reciprocal exchange turned out to be relatively more emphasized than social class and utilitarian value.

The main characteristics of social relations in a high school orchestra tended to have consistency toward fundamentally achieving the common purpose shared by the members. In other words, the key issue of social relations in a high school orchestra is how well the members achieve integration to achieve their common goal. In this sense, the most important keywords that characterize the social relations in a high school orchestra are sharing and integration.

This study has significance in examining the fundamental essence, features and significance of social relations among members of a high school orchestra by analyzing the characteristics of social relations among them through a qualitative research with focus on the context. Follow-up studies must analyze the context and process of school orchestras within the social relations of members beyond merely determining the consequential educational effects of school orchestras.
dc.description.abstract청소년기는 나는 누구인가라는 의문을 가지고 자아정체성이 형성되는 인생에서 매우 중요한 시기이며, 청소년이 올바른 자아정체성을 형성하도록 하여 올바른 성인으로 성장하도록 돕는 것은 사회, 국가, 인류의 과제이다. 자아정체성의 형성은 개인이 속한 사회에서의 다른 사람과의 사회적 관계에 의해 형성되며, 청소년기에 경험하는 사회적 관계는 그들이 이후 성인으로서 사회의 원만한 구성원이 되기 위한 발판이자 사회적 성장에 중요한 영향을 끼친다.

음악 활동에서 사회적 관계를 대표하는 것은 오케스트라라고 할 수 있다. 오케스트라는 서로 다른 악기 연주자들이 지휘자의 지휘에 맞추어 음의 조화를 이루어내는 대규모 조직이다. 오케스트라의 성격은 본질적으로 많은 다른 성격의 단원들이 서로 상호작용을 하며 화음을 이루어 공동의 음악적 목표를 위해 노력하므로 사회적인 성격을 띄고 있다. 특히 학교 교육 현장에서 동아리 성격을 띄는 학교 오케스트라는 학생 단원들이 경험과 목표를 공유하며 공동의 음악적 성과를 위해 노력하는 과정을 거치게 되므로 학교 오케스트라가 가지는 사회적 의미는 크다고 할 수 있다. 이러한 학교 오케스트라 활동을 통해 학생들이 가지는 사회적 의미들은 근본적으로는 구성원들 사이의 사회적 관계에서 비롯된 것으로 볼 수 있으며, 따라서 오케스트라 학생들이 오케스트라 내에서 가지는 사회적 관계에 집중하여 면밀하게 고찰할 필요성을 가진다. 이에 따라 본 연구에서는 고등학교 오케스트라 내 사회적 관계 양상의 특징을 밝히고, 고등학교 오케스트라 내 사회적 관계 양상의 맥락과 그 의미를 고찰하고자 한다.

이 연구에서는 고등학교 오케스트라 구성원들의 사회적 관계를 분석하기 위해 Fiske(1991)가 관계모델이론(Relational Models Theory)에서 인간의 사회적 관계의 기본적인 네 가지 형식으로 제시하는 공동의 공유(Communal Sharing), 권위적 서열(Authority Ranking), 평등한 대응(Equality Matching), 시장 가격(Market Pricing)을 이론적 토대로 하였다. 관계모델이론(Relational Models Theory)에서의 공동의 공유(Communal Sharing)는 공동체로서의 집단 소속감에 기반을 두는 관계를 의미하며, 권위적 서열(Authority Ranking)은 계급이나 지위, 명령에 따른 관계이다. 또한 평등한 대응(Equality Matching)은 호혜주의를 기반으로 하는 평등한 관계를, 시장 가격(Market Pricing)은 효율성과 이익에 따른 관계를 의미한다.

요컨대, 이 연구에서는 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들 간의 사회적 관계가 나타나는 양상의 특징을 관계모델이론(Relational Models Theory)을 근거로 하여 심층면담을 통해 맥락을 중심으로 분석하는데 목적을 둔다. 이를 통해 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들 간 사회적 관계의 근본적인 본질, 특성 및 유의미성을 고찰하고자 한다.

본 연구에서는 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들 간의 사회적 관계가 나타나는 양상의 특징을 관계모델이론(Relational Models Theory)을 근거로 하여 맥락을 중심으로 분석하기 위해 관계모델이론을 바탕으로 하여 초기 이론틀을 수립한 후, 이를 바탕으로 질문지를 구성하였다. 이후, 질문지에 대한 전문가 타당화를 거쳐 수정을 통해 최종 확정된 질문지를 활용하여 면담을 진행하였다. 면담은 개인 면담과 포커스 그룹을 통한 집단 면담이 이루어졌다. 면담을 시작하기 전, 먼저 연구참여자들에게 연구의 목적과 수집된 자료의 활용 등에 대해 설명하고 연구 참여 동의서를 받았다. 연구참여자 선정은 2017년 오케스트라 활동 사례집을 기초로 하여 선정기준을 모두 충족하는 7개의 고등학교를 선별하였고, 선별된 고등학교 오케스트라에 소속되어 활동하는 학생들 중 목적 표집을 통한 17인을 대상으로 하였다. 연구참여자들을 대상으로 하는 면담 후, 귀납적으로 자료를 분석하는 방식인 내용 분석을 통해 자료를 분석하였다.

연구 문제와 주요 분석 결과는 다음과 같다.

첫째, 공동체 의식에 기반을 두는 관계는 어떠한 양상을 보이는가? 고등학교 오케스트라 구성원들은 자신의 정체감을 오케스트라 집단과 동일시하는 집단정체감을 가지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 협력하는 과정에서 단지 음악적인 협력만 하는 것이 아니라 서로 정서적으로 연대감을 이루고자 하고, 그 결과 서로 음악적, 정서적인 측면에서 서로 도움을 주고받는 현상을 확인할 수 있었다. 나아가 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들은 유사하다고 느낌으로서 서로 가족과 같이 여기는 경향이 있으며, 이를 바탕으로 결속력을 형성하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 고등학교 오케스트라 학생들 사이에 이러한 관계가 나타나는 것은 그들이 서로 목적, 경험, 음악적 언어, 주요 관심사 등을 공유하기 때문이라고 할 수 있으며, 공유는 고등학교 오케스트라를 특징짓는 독특한 환경이라고 볼 수 있다.

둘째, 고등학교 오케스트라 내에서 사회적 계층이 형성되는 기준은 무엇인가? 고등학교 오케스트라에는 직책에 의한 계층이 형성되는 것으로 나타났다. 고등학교 오케스트라 내의 직책으로 악대장, 악장, 파트장과 같은 직책들이 있으며, 이 직책들은 악대장, 악장, 파트장 순서의 서열이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 고등학교 오케스트라 내의 사회적 계층은 오케스트라 단원 간의 협업과 질서유지를 가능하도록 한다. 또한 고등학교 오케스트라에는 직책 이외에 참여도에 의한 계층이 형성되는 것으로 나타났다.

셋째, 호혜적 교환을 기반으로 하는 평등한 관계는 어떠한 방식으로 나타나는가? 고등학교 오케스트라에는 선배에게 받았던 도움을 그대로 후배에게 베풀고자 하는 호혜적 교환 현상이 나타났다. 즉, 고등학교 오케스트라 집단에서는 음악 연주라는 공동의 목적을 달성하기 위해 서로 대등한 노력을 기울이는 것을 통해 평등한 대응 관계를 구축하고 유지하고자 하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 이러한 평등한 대응 관계를 통해 고등학교 오케스트라 집단 내의 구성원들은 집단 내의 동등한 동료로서의 정체성을 가짐으로써 결속력을 공고히 할 수 있다.

넷째, 고등학교 오케스트라 학생들이 오케스트라 활동에 부여하는 효용적 가치는 무엇인가? 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들이 오케스트라 활동을 통해 얻는 사회적 측면에서의 효용적 가치는 사회성 향상, 삶에 대한 동기부여, 깊이 있는 교우관계인 것으로 나타났다. 고등학교 오케스트라 구성원들은 음악적, 관계적 측면에서 서로 조화를 이루기 위해 노력하는 과정을 통해 사회성이 향상될 수 있다. 또한 고등학교 오케스트라는 단원 학생들에게 따뜻한 인간관계의 경험을 제공하고, 음악 연주를 통한 성취감을 가지게 함으로서 청소년들이 삶에 대한 열정을 가지고 새로운 꿈을 모색하게 하는 원동력이 될 수 있다. 나아가 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들 사이에 형성된 공동체 의식을 바탕으로 하여 깊이 있는 우정으로 발전해나갈 수 있다. 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들은 오케스트라를 통한 효용적 가치로서 깊이있는 우정에 중요한 비중을 두었고, 이는 고등학교 오케스트라에서 사회적 관계의 중요성을 강조하는 결과라고 할 수 있다.

다섯째, 고등학교 오케스트라 내 사회적 관계 양상의 맥락과 그 의미는 무엇인가? 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들이 오케스트라에 참여하는 과정에서 개인적인 가치보다는 공동체의 가치에 더 비중을 두는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들에게서 나타난 네 가지의 사회적 관계의 형식들을 서로 비교했을 때, 공동체 의식과 호혜적 교환이 사회적 계층, 효용적 가치보다 상대적으로 더 부각이 되는 경향이 있는 것으로 나타났다.

고등학교 오케스트라의 사회적 관계 양상에서 드러나는 주요 특징들은 근본적으로 구성원들이 공유하는 목적을 잘 달성하기 위한 방향을 향해 일관성을 가지는 특성이 있다고 할 수 있다. 즉, 고등학교 오케스트라의 전체 구성원들이 공동의 목표 달성을 위해 통합이 얼마나 잘 되느냐는 고등학교 오케스트라 사회적 관계의 핵심 쟁점이 된다. 이러한 의미에서 고등학교 오케스트라의 사회적 관계를 특징짓는 가장 중요한 키워드는 공유, 통합임을 알 수 있다.

본 연구를 통해 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들 간의 사회적 관계가 나타나는 양상의 특징을 질적 연구를 통해 맥락을 중심으로 분석함으로써, 고등학교 오케스트라 단원 학생들 간 사회적 관계의 근본적인 본질, 특성 및 유의미성을 고찰한 데에 그 의의가 있다. 앞으로의 후속 연구들 또한 학교 오케스트라의 결과적인 교육 효과를 밝히는 것을 넘어서, 그 효과가 나타나는 맥락과 과정을 구성원들의 사회적 관계 속에서 분석할 필요성이 제기된다.
dc.description.tableofcontentsⅠ. 서론 ················································································1

1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적 ·····················································1

2. 연구 문제 ·······································································6

3. 용어의 정의 ……………………………………····……············7

Ⅱ. 이론적 배경 ·····································································9

1. 사회적 관계 ···································································9

가. 사회적 관계의 개념 ……··………………………···············9

나. 사회적 관계의 범주 ···················································13

2. 사회적 관계 이론 – 관계모델이론 ····································17

가. 공동의 공유 ······························································18

나. 권위적 서열 ······························································22

다. 평등한 대응 ······························································25

라. 시장 가격 ·································································27

3. 학교 오케스트라 관련 선행연구 ·‥··································38

가. 학교 오케스트라의 교육 효과 ·····································38

나. 학교 오케스트라의 사회적 관계 ··································42

4. 고등학교 오케스트라의 역사적 맥락 ································57

5. 분석의 틀 ·····································································66

가. 공동의 공유 ······························································66

나. 권위적 서열 ······························································67

다. 평등한 대응 ······························································69

라. 시장 가격 ·································································70

Ⅲ. 연구 방법 ·······································································73

1. 연구 대상 ·····································································75

가. 대상 선정 기준 및 연구참여자 특성 ·····························76

나. 연구의 윤리 ······························································80

2. 연구 도구 ·····································································81

가. 1차 면담 자료 ···························································81

나. 2차 면담 자료 ···························································82

3. 자료수집 절차 ·······························································85

4. 자료분석 방법 ·······························································90

가. 코딩 과정 ·································································90

나. 타당도의 검증 ···························································92

Ⅳ. 연구 결과 ·······································································95

1. 공동체 의식 ··································································95

가. 집단정체감 ·······························································95

나. 정서적 연대감 ·························································103

다. 동질감 ····································································120

2. 사회적 계층 ································································132

가. 직책의 의한 계층 ·····················································132

나. 참여도에 의한 계층 ··················································143

3. 호혜적 교환 ·································································148

4. 효용적 가치 ·································································154

가. 사회성 향상 ·····························································154

나. 삶에 대한 동기부여 ··················································158

다. 우정 ········································································164

라. 음악성 계발 ·····························································169

Ⅴ. 논의 ·············································································174

1. 고등학교 오케스트라 내 사회적 관계 양상 ······················174

가. 공동체 의식 ·····························································174

나. 사회적 계층 ·····························································180

다. 호혜적 교환 ·····························································183

라. 효용적 가치 ·····························································184

2. 고등학교 오케스트라 내 사회적 관계 양상의 맥락과 의미··189

Ⅵ. 결론 및 제언 ··································································194

1. 요약 ············································································194

2. 결론 및 제언 ································································196

참 고 문 헌 ·········································································200

부 록 ··············································································224

면담 질문지 ·························································224

Abstract ············································································228
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.title고등학교 오케스트라의 사회적 관계 연구-
dc.title.alternativeA Study on the Social Relationships of High School Orchestras-
dc.contributor.AlternativeAuthorCho, Ah-Young-
dc.contributor.affiliation사범대학 협동과정 음악교육전공-
Appears in Collections:
College of Education (사범대학)Program in Music Education (협동과정-음악교육전공)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._협동과정-음악교육전공)
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