Resource Dependence and Income Inequality : 자원의존과 소득불평등: 캐나다 지역경제에 관한 실증적 연구
Empirical Study on Canadian Local Economies

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서울대학교 대학원
Resource DependenceIncome InequalityCanadaRegional-level Analysis
학위논문(석사)--서울대학교 대학원 :국제대학원 국제학과(국제통상전공),2019. 8. 안재빈.
The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate the relationship between resource dependence and income inequality across ten Canadian provinces, and a potential role of fiscal transfer and income tax in weakening its relationship. While overall Canadian economy is described as relatively stable, regional economies have experienced significant hardships in maintaining its stability during commodity price bust – oil prices specifically. This led to the question of whether provinces that are more reliant on their natural resources have relatively less stable economy compared to their counterparts. There are many approaches to empirically assess the impact of resource dependence on economic growth and development – one of which is using income inequality as a development indicator. Previous literatures have shown evidence to support that resource dependent countries have shown higher income inequality compared to others. Extending from this literature, this study uses provincial-level Gini coefficient to assess the impact of resource dependency in Canada. Moreover, this study uses three different types of Gini coefficient – based on market income, total income, and after-tax income – to see whether fiscal transfer and income tax plays a role in this relationship. The results show resource dependence leads to higher market income inequality, while mixed results are shown when fiscal transfer and income taxes are considered suggesting that fiscal transfer and income tax plays a role, albeit limited, in alleviating the effect of resource dependency on income inequality.
본 연구는 캐나다 10개 주의 자원의존도와 소득불평등의 관계성 그리고 그 관계를 약화시키는데 있어 재정이전(fiscal transfer)의 잠재적인 역할에 대해 조사하였다. 비교적 캐나다 경제는 안정적이라고 알려져 있지만 지역경제는 물가폭락(commodity price bust)에 민감하게 반응하며 안정성을 유지하는데 상당한 어려움을 겪어왔다. 문헌 검토를 통해 이미 자원의존도가 높은 지역이 보다 높은 소득 불평등을 보인다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. 본 연구는 재정이전(fiscal transfer)과 소득세의 역할을 평가하기 위해 시장소득(market income), 총소득(total income), 세후소득(after-tax income)에 근거한 세가지 유형의 지니계수(Gini Coefficient)를 불평등의 지표로 사용하였다. 결과적으로 자원의존성이 시장의 소득불평등을 증가시킨다는 것을 보여준다. 하지만 재정이전(fiscal transfer)과 소득세를 고려하였을 때 소득불평등을 야기하는 자원의전도의 성질을 약화시키는데 제한적으로나마 영향을 미치고 있음을 알 수 있다.
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Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원)Dept. of International Studies (국제학과)Theses (Master's Degree_국제학과)
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