S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.77/80(2017)
書啓에 대한 考察
A Study on Seogye
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.80, pp. 3-47
- Gugye; 口啓; Job title with official ranking title; 長銜; Job title; 單銜; Delivering king’s command; 傳諭; Bongsim Jeokgan; 奉審摘奸; Censor with king’s command; 御史; Care; 看病
- The original meaning of Seogye was a written report and was used as the relative term of Gugye which refers to a verbal report. This meaning of Seogye continued throughout the Joseon Dynasty. In particular, the usage of Seogye substantially inc reased from the reign of the King Seongjong. Seogye started to divide into many independent documents since the reign of King Jungjong. First, Gyesa became the first independent document among Seogye. Seogye, which later evolves into Chogi, was recorded as ‘~意啓曰’ and ‘~言啓曰’ and previous Seogye was recorded as ‘書啓曰’. Then, Seogye which was recorded as ‘~意啓曰’ and ‘~言啓曰’ evolved into an independent document of Chogi. Hence, Seogye has become a document for a public official who executed the King’s command to make a report since the reign of King Myeongjong.
In regard to the format of Seogye, the clear definition has not been confirmed. Only, the format of the document has been presumed based on law books, historical records, Seogye’s draft, Deungrok.
傳諭書啓directly recorded body without beginning. At the body of 傳諭書啓, process of delivering king’s command was written. Also, 附奏which is the answer of the recipient was written in quotation format. At the end of 傳諭書啓, writer’s job title and full name were written.
In relation to the 御史書啓, first, the principal was to put writer’s job title and then his family name at the beginning. However, exceptional cases with full name and job title with official ranking title instead of job title were found. Second, the processes and results of the execution under the King’s command were written at the body of 御史書啓. Basically, the same conventional phrase which is equal to closing remark of 御史書啓’s body and closing remark of Janggye’s body was used. But there were some cases without a conventional phrase. Third, at the end of Seogye, era name with year, date, writer’s job title, full name were written. Only, some cases used sexagenary cycle instead of era name with year, job title with official ranking instead of job title.
802 cases of Seogye were recorded with direct quotation format in the King Jeongjong’s Records of Daily Reflections and these could be divided into five categories according to the content and writer. First, 傳諭書啓is a Seogye when a public officer with the King’s command makes the report after completing 傳諭to state councilors and confucian intellectuals, taking up 70% at 563 cases. Second, 奉審摘奸書啓is a Seogye when a public officer with the King’s command makes a report after completing Bongsim and Jeokgan, taking up 17% at 140 cases. Third, 御史書啓is a Seogye when a censor with the King’s command makes a report, taking up 7% at 54 cases. Fourth, 看病書啓is a Seogye when a royal physician with the King’s command diagnoses the condition of liege’s disease and makes a report after cure, taking up 5% at 38 cases. Lastly, 7 cases of other Seogye which can not be included in the above category, taking up less than 1% of the total.