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1970년대에 쓰인 동물 심볼마크의 시각문화적 가치 재해석 연구 : 동물 상표의 형태 복원과 시각적 재해석을 통하여
The Reinterpretation of Visual Cultural Value on Animal Symbols in the 1970s in Korea

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dc.contributor.advisor김경선-
dc.contributor.author김수은-
dc.date.accessioned2020-10-13T03:16:11Z-
dc.date.available2020-10-13T03:16:11Z-
dc.date.issued2020-
dc.identifier.other000000162414-
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10371/169755-
dc.identifier.urihttp://dcollection.snu.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000162414ko_KR
dc.description학위논문 (박사) -- 서울대학교 대학원 : 미술대학 디자인학부 디자인전공, 2020. 8. 김경선.-
dc.description.abstract이 논문은 1970년대 한국 기업의 심볼마크에 동물이 많이 쓰인 현상과 한국 
사회의 토테미즘 문화의 관계를 탐구하여 오랜 시간 축적된 한국의 문화적 맥락이 
당시 일상 시각 문화에 영향을 주었음을 밝히는 것을 일차적 목적으로 한다. 
  나아가, 1970년대에 사용된 동물 심볼마크의 일부가 새로운 형식을 띤 레트로의 
유행으로 다시 일상적 환경에 등장한 사실에 주목하여, 이들이 시대와 상관없이 
선호되는 시각적 코드로서 가지는 시각 문화적 가치를 제고할 필요성을 논의한다. 
  그리하여 연구자는 동물 심볼마크의 시각 문화 가치 지속을 위한 방법으로서의 
작품 연구를 진행하였다. 첫 번째 작업으로 1970년대에 등록된 국내 기업의 동물 
심볼마크 395개를 수집한 후 오염된 부분을 수정하여 디지털 이미지로 
복원하였다. 두 번째 작업으로는 수집된 심볼마크 중 자주 쓰이는 동물 소재를 
30종 선택하여 각각의 상징 의미를 강화하는 방식으로 재해석했다. 이러한 복원과 
시각적 재해석 과정을 통해 소멸한 1970년대의 시각적 산물들을 다시 
유형화함으로써 이들이 한국의 일상 문화를 담은 디자인 사료로서의 가치를 
환기하고, 현재의 시각 환경에도 적용 가능한 방법을 탐구하는 것이 이 연구의 
궁극적 목적이다.
  디자인은 오랜 시간 물질문화를 반영한 사회문화 자산으로 받아들여지기보다는 
생산자의 소유물 담론으로 논의되어왔다. 그러나 최근 정부와 기관의 디자인 
아카이브에 대한 관심 등에 비추어볼 때 공공 문화 자산으로서의 디자인에 대한 
인식이 확산하고 있으며, 이를 통해 디자인 연구의 쟁점 또한 특정 주체의 소유 
개념에서 배경 시대상과 대중의 일상생활로 이동하고 있다. 이 연구 또한 심볼마크 
디자인을 특정 시기의 생산 및 소비문화 관점에서 바라보고자 한 데서 출발한다.
  경제성장기로 일컫는 한국 1970년대는 본격적인 근대화의 시작으로 경제 활동 
진흥과 함께 산업으로서의 디자인이 처음 논의된 시점이었으며, 제품 생산 증가와 
경제 규모 확대에 따라 기업 아이덴티티디자인 또한 체계화의 필요성이 
증가하였다. 그 결과 일상적 풍경에서 기존의 익명적 성격을 띤 심볼마크들과 
체계적이고 전문화된 기업 심볼마크들이 혼재하게 되었으며 점차 후자의 형태가 
심볼마크 디자인 환경에서 주류를 형성하게 되었다. 이는 즉, 1970년대가 
버내큘러 성격의 심볼마크 디자인이 쇠퇴하기 시작한 시기 임과 동시에 이러한 
성격의 심볼마크가 국내에서 가장 활발하게 활용되었던 시기라 말할 수 있다. 
  당시 시각 문화에 대해 다룬 많은 선행 연구들이 디자이너 산물인 현대적이고 
서구화된 심볼마크를 중심으로 서술한 것과 달리, 실제 대중들이 많이 접한 것은 
동물 이름과 동물 도안이 결합한 형태의 기업 상표들이었다. 연구자는 당시 수많은 
기업들이 동물 심볼마크를 도입한 배경을 유추하기 위해 당시의 동물 도형 상표 
도안과 전통 사회의 사료들에 사용된 동물들을 각각 조사하여 의미를 비교하였다.
  조사 결과, 1970년대의 상표 도안으로 확인한 동물 심볼마크는 총 
395건이었는데 그 소재로는 거북, 학, 말, 소, 곰, 제비 순으로 많이 활용되었으며, 
이 심볼마크의 절반 이상이 동물과 기업 가치 및 상품 속성의 개연성이 매우 낮은 
선점형(Found) 마크였다. 또한 동물이 등장한 국내 사료들을 살펴본바, 
심볼마크에 등장한 동물들의 의미는 장수, 복, 물질적 풍요 등에 집중되어 있으며, 
이는 민간에서 오랫동안 기복신앙에 주로 활용되는 소재들이었다. 그러므로 당시의 
일반적인 기업은 구체적 가치나 상품의 특징을 강조하기 위하여 심볼마크를 
도입한 것이 아니라, 창업과 운영 관점에서 기업 자체의 장수와 물질적 풍요 
기원의 목적으로 사용한 것으로 판단된다. 이 현상은 동시대에 기업 아이덴티티 
프로그램을 먼저 도입한 서구권과 이를 뒤이어 따른 일본 기업의 사례들, 그리고 
가상 동물과 한자 위주로 상징이 발달한 중국의 사례들과는 매우 다른 시각 
상징체계를 보여주는 우리나라의 특징적 시각 문화 현상이라고 할 수 있다.
  한편, 1970년대의 동물 심볼마크가 앞서 논의한 대로 시각 문화로서의 가치가 
있음에도 불구하고, 기업의 폐업이나 아이덴티티디자인 경향 변화에 따라
사라지거나 대체되었다. 또한 보존 상태가 나쁘고 조형 수준 또한 오늘의 것에 
미치지 못해 사료 연구에서도 외면되고 있다. 연구자는 이 시각적 자산들이 
재조명받지 못하고 계속해서 소멸하는 것을 우려하여 이 심볼마크들의 가치가 
지속되기 위한 방법으로서의 시각적 복원과 재해석을 연구하였다. 
  작품 연구를 위해 수집된 심볼마크는 현재 폐업하였거나, 기업은 유지되고 
있어도 더는 사용하지 않는 것들이다. 연구자는 사용되지 않는 심볼마크를 
부활시키기 위해 시각 문화적 가치를 강조하는 방식으로 심볼마크를 복원하여 
기록하였다.
  연구자는 수집한 동물 심볼마크를 기록하여 재해석하는 과정에 대한 결과물로서 
381개의 동물 심볼마크를 원본에 근거하여 복원하고 엮어 아카이브 북: 한국의 
1970년대 동물 심볼마크를 제작하였다. 그리고 수집한 심볼마크에서 소재화된 
동물 중 당시 선호되었던 30종의 동물을 각각의 상징의미를 강화하는 데에 초점을 
두고 그래픽 요소를 추가하거나 재구성하여 시각적으로 재해석한 후 오늘날에 
쓰임새 있는 물건에 적용하여 토템2020을 구성하는 것으로 연구를 마무리하였다. 
  연구자는 작품 연구과정에서 1970년대의 동물 심볼마크가 대부분 선점형 
심볼마크라는 점에 착안하였다. 또한 동물 심볼마크는 시대를 초월하여 대중에게 
선호되는 소재의 상징이라는 점에서 언제든지 재해석하여 새로운 매체에 적용할 
여지가 있는 대상이기도 하였다. 이 연구는 결론적으로 디자인 개념에 대한 인식 
변화에 따라 재조명되는 시각 산물의 하나인 동물 심볼마크를 살핀 후, 현시대의 
매체를 활용하여 소멸된 동물 심볼마크들의 가치를 부활시킴으로써 동물 심볼마크 
디자인의 통시대적 활용성을 제안하고자 하였다.
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dc.description.abstractThis study explores the prevalence of animal symbols used during the 1970s in
Korea and Totemism culture to demonstrate how the long-accumulated
cultural context exerted influence on the daily visual culture at the time.
Furthermore, the study recognizes that the 1970s animal symbols are partially
reappearing in the everyday environment today as a new form of a trend, and
as it is a visual code popularized again, the study discusses the visual cultural
value of these animal symbols.
Thus, the research is conducted as a means to sustain the visual cultural value
of animal symbols. Through the first work, the researcher collected 395 animal
symbols used by companies registered in the 1970s and restored images as
digital records after correcting damages found in the original design. Then, the
most frequently used 30 types of animals were selected and reinterpreted by
strengthening its symbolic meaning. Through the restoration and visual
reinterpretation process, the visual products of the 1970s were re-categorized,
and the value of these as design materials were evoked. Based on this, the
study ultimately aimed to investigate how these materials can be applied in
todays visual environment.
Insofar, design has been discussed as a property of the designer or company
rather than as a social and cultural asset that reflects material culture.
However, with the recent government interest in creating a design archive,
design is starting to be perceived as a public cultural asset. As such, design
research is also shifting from the ownership of a specific subject to reflecting
the contemporary culture and the everyday realm of the general public.
Likewise, this research also views the design of symbols in relation to
production and the consumer culture of a specific era.
The 1970s in Korea are referred to as the time of rapid economic growth and
the beginning of modernization whereby design first became acknowledged as
an industry in itself contributing toward economic activities. As production
increased and the economy expanded, the need for corporate identity design
and its systematic development was recognized. As a result, the by and large
anonymous symbol trademarks became mixed with systematic and professional
designs of large corporations in the daily lives of people. Gradually, the latter
form of trademark design became mainstream. In other words, the 1970s
marked the height of vernacular symbol trademarks use which then started to
decline.
Although prior studies primarily investigate the visual culture of the time by
focusing on the modernized and Westernized trademarks created by designers,
the general public was more familiar with corporate trademarks in the form of
animal names and designs. To understand the reason behind such popularity,
this study researched the registered trademark designs and the historical records
of animal design and compared its meanings.
There were a total of 395 animal symbol trademarks registered in the 1970s.
The most popular motifs were the turtle, crane, horse, cow, bear, and swallow,
in the order of popularity. More than half of these trademarks were based on
found notions that had hardly any connections to the corporate value or
product attributes. Also, the animals found in design records were emblems of
longevity, blessing, and good luck prevalent in traditional paintings and
narratives based on the old belief system calling for blessings. In this sense, it
can be inferred that a typical company at the time did not introduce
trademarks to emphasize specific values or product attributes, but used it as a
mark of the companys longevity and material abundance.
This visual cultural phenomenon contrasts against Western cases where
corporate identity programs were first introduced, followed by Japanese
corporations, and the case of China whereby symbols were developed largely
from fabulous creatures and Chinese characters.
Despite the visual cultural value of the animal symbols of the 1970s as
discussed earlier, these disappeared or became replaced as companies declined
or as the identity design trend changed. Also, due to the poor preservation and
comparatively low-quality of design outcomes, these symbols became neglected
by research. Hence, this study visually reconstructed and reinterpreted these
symbols as a means to sustain its value in apprehension that these visual assets
will continue to be ignored and lost.
The collected symbols are of companies that have already closed or are still in
business but no longer use these. In order to revive these unused symbols, this
study restored and documented these symbols with an emphasis on the visual
cultural value.
As a result of this documentation and reinterpretation, the research published
a monograph of the 381 animal symbols based on the original. The
research focused on strengthening the symbolic meaning of the 30 most
popular animals, and the original design were reinterpreted through
reconstructing or adding graphic elements. The results were applied to
objects used nowadays. Through this, the research demonstrated that the
various symbols that existed in the everyday life of Korea in the 1970s can
also be utilized as a graphic material for todays visual environment.
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dc.description.tableofcontents제1장. 서론 01
1. 연구목적과 배경 01
2. 선행연구 검토 03
3. 연구문제와 연구방법 도식화 05
4. 용어의 정의 06
5. 연구의 범위 08
제2장. 동물상징에 관한 두 가지 시각문화 현상 09
제1절. 1970년대의 동물 심볼마크 09
1. 1970년대 시대적 배경 09
2. 동물 심볼마크의 개념과 조사방법 13
3. 1970년대 상표 조사 내용 15
4. 1970년대 동물 심볼마크의 특징 18
제2절. 2010년대의 레트로 브랜드디자인에의 동물 심볼마크 20
1. 2010년대 레트로 브랜드디자인 현상의 정의와 그 배경 20
2. 2010년대 레트로 브랜드디자인의 유형 23
제3절. 두 현상의 관계 26
제3장. 1970년대 동물 심볼마크의 상징체계 해석 29
제1절. 한국 동물 토테미즘 29
1. 토테미즘의 이론적 정의 29
2. 한국 동물 토테미즘의 특징과 사례 분석 34
제2절. 1970년대 동물 심볼마크와 한국 동물 토테미즘의 관계 43
1. 1970년대 동물 심볼마크와 한국 동물 토테미즘의 비교 43
2. 해외 동물 심볼마크 상징체계와의 비교 47
제4장. 소결: 1970년대에 쓰인 동물 심볼마크의 시각문화적 특징 56
1. 전문가 검증 인터뷰 56
2. 한국 1970년대 동물 심볼마크의 의미와 시각 문화적 가치 61
제5장. 지속적 가치 제고를 위한 재현 작품 연구 63
제1절. 재현의 개념 63
1. 심볼마크 재현의 개념적 정의 64
2. 심볼마크 재현의 유형 65
3. 작업의 차별점 66
제2절. 1970년대 동물 심볼마크의 복원 67
1. 작업 의도 67
2. 작업 방식과 과정 67
3. 결과물: 아카이브 북 '한국의 1970년대 동물 심볼마크' 68
제3절. 1970년대 동물 심볼마크의 재해석 70
1. 작업 의도 70
2. 작업 방식과 과정 70
3. 결과물: 토템2020 74
제4절. 전시 구성 84
제6장. 결론 88
참고문헌 90
부록.전문가 인터뷰 질문지 및 설문지 93
Abstract 100
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dc.language.isokor-
dc.publisher서울대학교 대학원-
dc.subject1970년대 아이덴티티디자인-
dc.subject뉴트로-
dc.subject동물 심볼마크-
dc.subject토테미즘-
dc.subject상표 복원-
dc.subject시각적 재해석-
dc.subject1970s’ Identity Design-
dc.subjectNew-retro-
dc.subjectAnimal Symbols-
dc.subjectTotemism-
dc.subjectTrademarks Restoration-
dc.subjectVisual Reinterpretation-
dc.subject.ddc745.2-
dc.title1970년대에 쓰인 동물 심볼마크의 시각문화적 가치 재해석 연구-
dc.title.alternativeThe Reinterpretation of Visual Cultural Value on Animal Symbols in the 1970s in Korea-
dc.typeThesis-
dc.typeDissertation-
dc.contributor.AlternativeAuthorSooeun Kim-
dc.contributor.department미술대학 디자인학부 디자인전공-
dc.description.degreeDoctor-
dc.date.awarded2020-08-
dc.title.subtitle동물 상표의 형태 복원과 시각적 재해석을 통하여-
dc.identifier.uciI804:11032-000000162414-
dc.identifier.holdings000000000043▲000000000048▲000000162414▲-
Appears in Collections:
College of Fine Arts (미술대학)Dept. of Crafts and Design (디자인학부)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._디자인학부)
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