Thermal effects of copper-graphene composite films in a human skin analogous for the application to clothing
- Ko, Yelin; Shin, Sora; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Byung Hee; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Joo-Young
- Issue Date
- International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol.32 No.4, pp.601-618
- Copper-graphene composite film; Thermal conductivity; Heat accumulation; Cold-protective clothing
- Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore heat-accumulative and thermal-conductive characteristics of copper-graphene composite film (Cu-G film) while applying it to a human-skin analogue. Design/methodology/approach In the preliminary experiment, the authors evaluated the thermal conductive characteristics of the Cu-G film in three covered conditions (no film, copper film, and Cu-G film conditions). For the first factorial experiment, the heat-accumulative properties over heated pig skin were compared at air temperatures of 10, 25 and 35 degrees C. For the second factorial experiment, 105 trials were conducted on pig skin by combining air temperatures, trapped air volumes, and numbers of film layers. Findings The results from the preliminary experiment showed that the Cu-G film distributed the surface heat to the outside of the Cu-G film, which resulted in even distribution of heat inside and outside the Cu-G film, whereas the copper film accumulated heat inside the copper film. The human-skin analogue of pig skin, however, showed the opposite tendency from that of the plastic. The pig-skin temperatures beneath the Cu-G film were higher than those beneath the copper film, and those differences were remarkable at the air temperature of 10 degrees C. The accumulative heat was affected by the trapped air volume, fit to the skin, and number of Cu-G film layers. Originality/value In conclusion, the Cu-G film more effectively accumulated heat on the human-skin analogue than copper film, and those effects were more marked in cold environments than in mild or hot environments.