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4-hydroxyestradiol induces anchorage-independent growth of human mammary epithelial cells via activation of IκB kinase: Potential role of reactive oxygen species

Cited 57 time in Web of Science Cited 69 time in Scopus

Park, Sin-Aye; Na, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Hee; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

Issue Date
American Association for Cancer Research
Cancer Research, Vol.69 No.6, pp.2416-2424
Estrogen is converted by cytochrome P450 1B1 to 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE(2)), a putative carcinogenic metabolite of estrogen. This catechol estrogen metabolite is oxidized further to produce a reactive quinone via semiquinone. Redox cycling between 4-OHE(2) and its quinoid generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS not only causes oxidative DNA damage but also promotes neoplastic transformation of initiated cells. In the present study, 4-OHE(2) induced anchorage-independent colony formation in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). MCF-10A cells treated with 4-OHE(2) exhibited increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. The antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited the neoplastic transformation induced by 4-OHE(2). ROS overproduced by 4-OHE(2) increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and its DNA binding through induction of I kappa B kinase alpha (IKK alpha) and IKK beta activities. The inhibition of the IKK activities with Bay 11-7082 significantly reduced the anchorage-independent growth induced by 4-OHE(2). The 4-OHE(2)-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt resulted in enhanced IKK activities and phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha, thereby inducing NF-kappa B activation and anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A cells. In conclusion, ROS, concomitantly overproduced during redox cycling of 4-OHE(2), activates IKK signaling, which may contribute to neoplastic transformation of MCF-10A cells. [Cancer Res 2009;69(6):2416-24]
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  • College of Pharmacy
  • Department of Pharmacy
Research Area Agricultural Sciences


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