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Three-dimensional printed polylactic acid scaffold integrated with BMP-2 laden hydrogel for precise bone regeneration

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Issue Date
2021-10-27
Publisher
BMC
Citation
Biomaterials Research. 2021 Oct 27;25(1):35
Keywords
3D scaffold3D printingBiogelCritical bone defectControlled releaseBMP-2
Abstract
Background
Critical bone defects remain challenges for clinicians, which cannot heal spontaneously and require medical intervention. Following the development of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is widely used in bone tissue engineering for its outstanding customizability. The 3D printed scaffolds were usually accompanied with growth factors, such as bone morphometric protein 2 (BMP-2), whose effects have been widely investigated on bone regeneration. We previously fabricated and investigated the effect of a polylactic acid (PLA) cage/Biogel scaffold as a carrier of BMP-2. In this study, we furtherly investigated the effect of another shape of PLA cage/Biogel scaffold as a carrier of BMP-2 in a rat calvaria defect model and an ectopic ossification (EO) model.


Method
The PLA scaffold was printed with a basic commercial 3D printer, and the PLA scaffold was combined with gelatin and alginate-based Biogel and BMP-2 to induce bone regeneration. The experimental groups were divided into PLA scaffold, PLA scaffold with Biogel, PLA scaffold filled with BMP-2, and PLA scaffold with Biogel and BMP-2 and were tested both in vitro and in vivo. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis was used to determine whether statistically significant difference exists between groups.


Result
The in vitro results showed the cage/Biogel scaffold released BMP-2 with an initial burst release and followed by a sustained slow-release pattern. The released BMP-2 maintained its osteoinductivity for at least 14 days. The in vivo results showed the cage/Biogel/BMP-2 group had the highest bone regeneration in the rat calvarial defect model and EO model. Especially, the bone regenerated more regularly in the EO model at the implanted sites, which indicated the cage/Biogel had an outstanding ability to control the shape of regenerated bone.


Conclusion
In conclusion, the 3D printed PLA cage/Biogel scaffold system was proved to be a proper carrier for BMP-2 that induced significant bone regeneration and induced bone formation following the designed shape.
ISSN
2055-7124
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/176963
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40824-021-00233-7
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College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원)Orthopedic Surgery (정형외과학전공)Journal Papers (저널논문_정형외과학전공)
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