Anti-metastatic effect of GV1001 on prostate cancer cells; roles of GnRHR-mediated Gαs-cAMP pathway and AR-YAP1 axis
- Issue Date
- Cell & Bioscience. 2021 Nov 07;11(1):191
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) transmits its signal via two major Gα-proteins, primarily Gαq and Gαi. However, the precise mechanism underlying the functions of Gαs signal in prostate cancer cells is still unclear. We have previously identified that GV1001, a fragment of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase, functions as a biased GnRHR ligand to selectively stimulate the Gαs/cAMP pathway. Here, we tried to reveal the potential mechanisms of which GV1001-stimulated Gαs-cAMP signaling pathway reduces the migration and metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa) cells.
The expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes was measured by western-blotting and spheroid formation on ultra-low attachment plate was detected after GV1001 treatment. In vivo Spleen-liver metastasis mouse model was used to explore the inhibitory effect of GV1001 on metastatic ability of PCa and the transwell migration assay was performed to identify whether GV1001 had a suppressive effect on cell migration in vitro. In order to demonstrate the interaction between androgen receptor (AR) and YAP1, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), immunofluorescence (IF) staining, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed in LNCaP cells with and without GV1001 treatment.
GV1001 inhibited expression of EMT-related genes and spheroid formation. GV1001 also suppressed in vivo spleen-liver metastasis of LNCaP cells as well as cell migration in vitro. GV1001 enhanced the phosphorylation of AR and transcription activity of androgen response element reporter gene through cAMP/protein kinase A pathway. Moreover, GV1001 increased Ser-127 phosphorylation of YAP1 and its ubiquitination, and subsequently decreased the levels of AR-YAP1 binding in the promoter region of the CTGF gene. In contrast, both protein and mRNA levels of NKX3.1 known for tumor suppressor gene and AR-coregulator were upregulated by GV1001 in LNCaP cells. YAP1 knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 significantly suppressed the migration ability of LNCaP cells, and GV1001 did not affect the cell migration of YAP1-deficient LNCaP cells. On the contrary, cell migration was more potentiated in LNCaP cells overexpressing YAP5SA, a constitutively active form of YAP1, which was not changed by GV1001 treatment.
Overall, this study reveals an essential role of AR-YAP1 in the regulation of PCa cell migration, and provides evidence that GV1001 could be a novel GnRHR ligand to inhibit metastasis of PCa via the Gαs/cAMP pathway.