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Antiviral activity of furanocoumarins isolated from Angelica dahurica against influenza a viruses H1N1 and H9N2

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Issue Date
2020-09
Publisher
Elsevier BV
Citation
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol.259, p. 112945
Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Say. (Umbelliferae family) is an herbaceous, perennial plant native to northern and eastern Asia. The root of A. dahurica has traditionally been used under the name "Bai Zhi" as a medicinal plant for colds, dizziness, ulcers, and rheumatism. Moreover, it is also an important ingredient of various prescriptions, such as Gumiganghwal-Tang, for the common cold and influenza. Aim of the study: Even though various biological activities of the root of A. dahurica have been reported along with its chemical components, the detailed mechanism of how it exerts anti-influenza activity at the compound level has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the anti-influenza properties of furanocoumarins purified by bioactivity-guided isolation. Materials and methods: Bioactivity-guided isolation from a 70% EtOH extract of the root of A. dahurica was performed to produce four active furanocoumarins. The inhibition of cytopathic effects (CPEs) was evaluated to ascertain the antiviral activity of these compounds against influenza A (H1N1 and H9N2) viruses. The most potent compound was subjected to detailed mechanistic studies such as the inhibition of viral protein synthesis, CPE inhibition in different phases of the viral replication cycle, neuraminidase (NA) inhibition, antiapoptotic activity using flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. Results: The bioactivity-guided isolation produced four active furanocoumarins, isoimperatorin (1), oxypeucedanin (2), oxypeucedanin hydrate (3) and imperatorin (4) from the n-BuOH fraction. Among them, compound 2 (followed by compounds 1, 4 and 3) showed a significant CPE inhibition effect, which was stronger than that of the positive control ribavirin, against both H1N1 and H9N2 with an EC50 (mu M) of 5.98 +/- 0.71 and 4.52 +/- 0.39, respectively. Compound 2 inhibited the synthesis of NA and nucleoprotein (NP) in a dose-dependent manner. In the time course assays, the cytopathic effects of influenza A-infected MDCK cells were reduced by 80-90% when treated with compound 2 for 1 and 2 h after infection and declined drastically 3 h after infection. The level of viral NA and NP production was markedly reduced to less than 20% for both proteins in compound 2 (20 mu M)-treated cells compared to untreated cells at 2 h after infection. In the molecular docking analysis, compound 2 showed a stronger binding affinity for the C-terminus of polymerase acidic protein (PAC; - 36.28 kcal/mol) than the other two polymerase subunits. Compound 2 also exerted an antiapoptotic effect on virus infected cells and significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax. Conclusion: Our results suggest that compound 2 might exert anti-influenza A activity via the inhibition of the early phase of the viral replication cycle, not direct neutralization of surface proteins, such as hemagglutinin and NA, and abnormal apoptosis induced by virus infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that furanocoumarins predominant in A. dahurica play a pivotal role in its antiviral activity. These findings can also explain the reasons for the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant as an important ingredient in many antiviral prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
ISSN
0378-8741
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/179906
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College of Pharmacy (약학대학)Dept. of Pharmacy (약학과)Journal Papers (저널논문_약학과)
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