S-Space College of Veterinary Medicine (수의과대학) Dept. of Veterinary Medicine (수의학과) Journal Papers (저널논문_수의학과)
Quercetin Induces Anticancer Activity by Upregulating Pro-NAG-1/GDF15 in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Cells
- Issue Date
- Cancers, Vol.13 No.12, p. 3022
- Simple Summary Thyroid cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and its incidence has increased over the last few decades. It is difficult to diagnose different types of thyroid cancer. Tumor tissues from papillary thyroid cancer patient showed higher expression of mature NAG-1, whereas adjacent normal tissues showed higher expression of pro-NAG-1. Several anti-cancer compounds increased pro-NAG-1 expression in thyroid cancer cell line. Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid that is a major component of various plants, including raspberries, grapes, and onions. Quercetin induced apoptosis by inducing only pro-NAG-1 expression, but not mature NAG-1, mediated by the transcription factor C/EBP. This study indicates that pro-NAG-1 could be used as a useful biomarker for thyroid cancer and also provides a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of thyroid cancer with quercetin. Although the treatment of thyroid cancer has improved, unnecessary surgeries are performed due to a lack of specific diagnostic and prognostic markers. Therefore, the identification of novel biomarkers should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. In this study, antibody arrays were performed using tumor and adjacent normal tissues of patients with papillary thyroid cancer, and several potential biomarkers were identified. Among the candidate proteins chosen based on the antibody array data, mature NAG-1 exhibited increased expression in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. In contrast, pro-NAG-1 expression increased in normal tissues, as assessed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, pro-NAG-1 expression was increased when the thyroid cancer cells were treated with phytochemicals and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, quercetin highly induced the expression of pro-NAG-1 but not that of mature NAG-1, with enhanced anticancer activity, including apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. Examination of the NAG-1 promoter activity showed that p53, C/EBP alpha, or C/EBP delta played a role in quercetin-induced NAG-1 expression. Overall, our study indicated that NAG-1 may serve as a novel biomarker for thyroid cancer prognosis and may be used as a therapeutic target for thyroid cancers.
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