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Ichthyotoxic Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tides offshore in the South Sea, Korea in 2014: II. Heterotrophic protists and their grazing impacts on red-tide organisms

Cited 23 time in Web of Science Cited 29 time in Scopus

Lim, An Suk; Jeong, Hae Jin; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Moo Joon; Kang, Nam Seon; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Park, Jae Yeon; Jang, Tae Young; Du Yoo, Yeong

Issue Date
ALGAE, Vol.32 No.3, pp.199-222
Occurrence of Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tides have resulted in considerable economic losses in the aquaculture industry in many countries, and thus predicting the process of C. polykrikoides red tides is a critical step toward minimizing those losses. Models predicting red tide dynamics define mortality due to predation as one of the most important parameters. To investigate the roles of heterotrophic protists in red tide dynamics in the South Sea of Korea, the abundances of heterotrophic dinoflagellates (HTDs), tintinnid ciliates (TCs), and naked ciliates (NCs) were measured over one-or two-week intervals from May to Nov 2014. In addition, the grazing impacts of dominant heterotrophic protists on each red tide species were estimated by combining field data on red tide species abundances and dominant heterotrophic protist grazers with data obtained from the literature concerning ingestion rates of the grazers on red tide species. The abundances of HTDs, TCs, and NCs over the course of this study were high during or after red tides, with maximum abundances of 82, 49, and 35 cells mL(-1), respectively. In general, the dominant heterotrophic protists differed when different species caused red tides. The HTDs Polykrikos spp. and NCs were abundant during or after C. polykrikoides red tides. The mean and maximum calculated grazing coefficients of Polykrikos spp. and NCs on populations of co-occurring C. polykrikoides were 1.63 d(-1) and 12.92 d(-1), respectively. Moreover, during or after red tides dominated by the phototrophic dinoflagellates Prorocentrum donghaiense, Ceratium furca, and Alexandrium fraterculus, which formed serial red tides prior to the occurrence of C. polykrikoides red tides, the HTDs Gyrodinium spp., Polykrikos spp., and Gyrodinium spp., respectively were abundant. The maximum calculated grazing coefficients attributable to dominant heterotrophic protists on co-occurring P. donghaiense, C. furca, and A. fraterculus were 13.12, 4.13, and 2.00 d(-1), respectively. Thus, heterotrophic protists may sometimes have considerable potential grazing impacts on populations of these four red tide species in the study area.
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  • College of Natural Sciences
  • Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Research Area Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Biological Oceanography, Plankton


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