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Quantitative Augmented Reality-Assisted Free-Hand Orthognathic Surgery Using Electromagnetic Tracking and Skin-Attached Dynamic Reference

Cited 6 time in Web of Science Cited 9 time in Scopus

Kim, Seong Ha; Lee, Sang Jeong; Choi, Min Hyuk; Yang, Hoon Joo; Kim, Jo Eun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Hwang, Soon Jung; Yi, Won Jin

Issue Date
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Ltd.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Vol.31 No.8, pp.2175-2181
The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative AR-assisted free-hand orthognathic surgery method using electromagnetic (EM) tracking and skin-attached dynamic reference. The authors proposed a novel, simplified, and convenient workflow for augmented reality (AR)-assisted orthognathic surgery based on optical marker-less tracking, a comfortable display, and a non-invasive, skin-attached dynamic reference frame. The 2 registrations between the physical (EM tracking) and CT image spaces and between the physical and AR camera spaces, essential processes in AR-assisted surgery, were pre-operatively performed using the registration body complex and 3D depth camera. The intraoperative model of the maxillary bone segment (MBS) was superimposed on the real patient image with the simulated goal model on a flat-panel display, and the MBS was freely handled for repositioning with respect to the skin-attached dynamic reference tool (SRT) with quantitative visualization of landmarks of interest using only EM tracking. To evaluate the accuracy of AR-assisted Le Fort I surgery, the MBS of the phantom was simulated and repositioned by 6 translational and three rotational movements. The mean absolute deviations (MADs) between the simulation and post-operative positions of MBS landmarks by the SRT were 0.20, 0.34, 0.29, and 0.55 mm in x- (left lateral, right lateral), y- (setback, advance), and z- (impaction, elongation) directions, and RMS, respectively, while those by the BRT were 0.23, 0.37, 0.30, and 0.60 mm. There were no significant differences between the translation and rotation surgeries or among surgeries in the x-, y-, and z-axes for the SRT. The MADs in the x-, y-, and z-axes exhibited no significant differences between the SRT and BRT. The developed method showed high accuracy and reliability in free-hand orthognathic surgery using EM tracking and skin-attached dynamic reference.
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