현대 러시아 비즈니스 엘리트 형성에 대한 연구: 비즈니스 엘리트 기원과 형성과정 및 발전 전망

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서울대학교 국제학연구소
국제지역연구, Vol.11 No.1, pp. 91-120
비즈니스 엘리트노맨끌라뚜라러시아 사회계층
This article examines the origin of the business-elite in current Russia. The business-elite is a group capable of mobilizing and controlling financial-economic resources advantageous to its own means through collusion with political powers. As the leading group promoting transformation of Russia to a market economy, it also functions as a contributor in securing material proprietary rights of the existing ruling elite. The business-elite originates from three different strata: one of which is the party-industry- Komsomol nomenklatura, in hope of successfully converting their political power into economic proprietorship, another is the lawbreakers of the underground economy with the intention of legalizing their business and capital activities, and lastly, technological and humanistic intelligentsias, unsatisfied with their social standing, aspiring to achieve self realization through business.

Beginning its business in the late 1980s, it was formed into a major social group during the nomenklatura privatization process soon thereafter, and by the mid 90s, finally succeeded in joining together with the political powers. Up until then, former Soviet nomenklatura was the major players in the field. But from the late 1990" s to present, intelligentsias who had no previous relation to the ruling party rose as the leading actor. The appearance of a new generation of business-elite is inevitable, as it will be more flexible in adapting to the market economy.

But there exists serious doubt as to whether this change is a fundamental shift in generation. It is true that these non-Soviet, younger-generation of business-elite have rose as the major businessmen of Russia, but they could not have secured their position today with mere ability and effort. What they are today is a result of close alliance with the past ruling elite and their continuos support. In conclusion, it is justifiable to say that there appears to be a new generation of business-elites in Russia, but still only under the sustaining ruling elite system.
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Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원)Dept. of International Studies (국제학과)국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.11 (2002)
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