몽골전래동요 연구 : Study of Mongolian Traditional Children's Song

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서울대학교 음악대학 동양음악연구소
동양음악, Vol.31, pp. 147-191
This is a survey of Mongolia's traditional children's songs. It is based on data survey and collection over a period of six months as well as an 8-day spot survey in Mongolia. The original spot survey in Mongolia was scheduled to be carried out in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, for l0 days from May 14-24, 2009. However, due to the airplane schedule, the actually survey period was 8 days. The origins of Mongolia's traditional children's songs coincides with the appearance of the term called xuxdiin duu, which means children's song, during the beginnings of socialism in the 1940s. Traditionally, Mongolia's children's songs had been included in the category of adults songs without distinction as traditional children's song or children's song. Children's songs were created as a separate category as part of educational developments in schools. Before this educational provision, distinct traditional children's song or children's song in Mongolia did not exist primarily due to the nomatic lifestyles of the people. Mongolian people make a living while moving the family unit from place to place. Thus, there are songs that adults sing for children or that became children's songs naturally due to exposure to the adults' songs. However, those are not officially categorized as chi1dren's songs. This examination of the birth of Mongolia's traditional children's songs has led to a concwsion that the songs are based on a combination of folk songs and epic song styles in Mongolia. Mongolia's traditional children's songs, which were collected through the spot survey, totaled approximately 36 pieces. Musical analysis of the 36 pieces reveals a mainstream rhythm consisting of two-four time, three-four time, and four-four time. Two of the 36 pieces are in three-eight time and six-eight time. The musical scale is a pentatonic scale. It is typical for the musical range not to exceed an octave and a half. Mongolia's traditional children's songs can be characterized as usually short, neat, fluent, formal, easy to know, and easy to memorize. Given the musical characteristics of Mongolia's traditional children's songs, we can see that they are not greatly different from Korea's traditional children's songs. These songs are, as well, most likely quite similar to traditional children's songs in other parts of the world. In terms of methodology, some doubt the validity of the spot survey in researching foreign music. But, such surveys of 'traditional children's songs' have helped us gain a general view of their characteristics. Therefore, these types of surveys are helpful in learning about musical classifications, structures, and concepts and comparing these with the characteristics of traditional children's songs elsewhere.

본 연구는 서울대학교 동양음악연구소에서 요청받아 2009년 1월부터 수행된 것이다. 연구소에서는 몽골의 전래동요에 대한 개황과 분류, 음원, 악보와 함께 몽골의 대표민요까지 조사할 것을 당부했다. 몽골에는 전래동요가 없다. 여기서 몽골에 전래동요가 없다는 의미는 몽골 전통 성악곡에서 전래동요를 구분하지 않는다는 의미이다. 10여 년간 몽골음악에 관한 연구를 해왔지만 몽골전래동요란 단어는 몽골 학자들 혹은 현지조사 중에 만나 몽골인들 사이에서 한 번도 언급되지 않았다. 이번 연구조사를 위하여 먼저 몽골전래동요에 대한 개념 정리가 필요하다. 그 동안 수집한 몽골음악관련 개설서와 사전 그리고 『몽골 구비문학』에서 몽골전래동요에 대한 내용을 찾았으나 찾을 수 없었다. 다만 『몽골 구비문학』의 내용 중 아동구비문학(Xyyx)이란 구분에 자장가(부웽 도: Byy)만을 발견하였다. 그러나 국내에서 자장가는 동요로 구분하는데 이견(異見)들이 있다.
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College of Music (음악대학)Asian Music Research Institute (동양음악연구소)Journal of the Asian Music Research Institute (동양음악, JAMRI)동양음악 Volume 31 (2009)
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