신경제정책기의 소비에뜨경제의 구조적 위기와 꾸스따르 공업의 활용에 대한 논의
The Structural Crisis of the Soviet Economy in the Years of the New Economic Policy and Ideas on the Utilization of the KustarIndustry

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서울대학교 러시아연구소
러시아연구, Vol.8 No.2, pp. 187-247
As in any underdeveloped country, small-scale industry played an important role in the prerevolutionary Russian economy. The rapid industrialization that had occurred in Russia in the four decades preceding the Revolution was extremely uneven. The mechanized factory production had become predominant in the industry producing capital goods and semifabricates, but almost all consumer goods were stiII produced by the dispersed, technologically primitive small-scale industry. Many factors had contributed to the development of the small-scale industry: The unsufficient supply of industrial goods to the peasants; the significant surplus" rural population; the absence of a good highway network; the long Russian winter.

The relatively primitive kustarindustry became a partial outlet for the surplus agrarian population. It produced cheap coarse consumer goods, catering to the needs and tastes of the Russian peasants, whose incomes did not permit them to buy the more expensive factory-produced goods. The Russian village with its local kustar' industry was almost self-sufficient.

The Bolshevik Revolution did not diminish the importance of small-scale industry. The relative share of small-scale industry, on the contray, had increased during the period of War Communism and in the initial years of the New Economic Policy(NEP). As early as 1926/27 voices of alarm were raised in the Soviet press over the danger of private capital and small-scale industry. The introduction of an over-all national plan in 1929 undermined the existence of independent small-scale industry. As a result of the collectivization of agriculture, the "unorganized" kustari disappeared from the countryside. This study is focused on examination over the concepts of utilization of small-scale industry, which many economic specialists and theorists In politics had proposed since the middle of the 1920s, in order to overcome the structural crisis of the Soviet economy. The mechanization and rationalization of the small-scale industry was regarded as a chief solution on the problem of the chronical deficit of industrial goods and the problem of "surplus" agrarian population, the problems with that the Soviet economy was confronted during the period of N'EP. According to the advocates for the utilization of small-scale industry this strategy of development would garrantee a crisis-free process of the industrialization, without lowering the standard of living of the mass. But the atmosphere of discuss over a better strategy of development was getting worse, so that the bolshevik theorists and economists carried out their concepts to build large-scale industry with mordem technology. A result from this practice should exclude the possibility of abolishing the contrast between urban and rural area.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소)러시아연구 (Russian Studies)러시아연구 Volume 08 Number 1/2 (1998)
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