S-Space College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학) Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소) 지리학논총 (Journal of Geography) 지리학논총 Volume 27/28 (1996)
어린이 통행의 시 · 공간적 특성 - 서울시 초등학생의 통행자율성을 중심으로
Spatio-Ternporal Characteristics of Children's Travel Behavior - A case study of the travel autonomy of elementary school children in Seoul-
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국토문제연구소
- 지리학논총, Vol.28, pp. 95-119
- 어린이; 통행; 통행시간; 통행거리; 통행유형; 통행자율성; children; travel time; travel distance; travel types; independent mobility; travel autonomy; travel
- This study exammes the spatio-temporal characteristics of urban children's travel behavior, especially their independent mobility. It also analyses such factors as age of child, pattern of parental car usage, mother's employment, and residential setting affect the independent mobility of children. For this purpose, a group of elementary school children in Years 3 and 6, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul were selected and questionnaires were given to them and their parents.
Travel diarys including both weekday and Sunday trips were analysed by travel accompanist, travel time, travel distance, and travel mode. According to weekday travel types, they were classified into four groups and their characteristics were studied. The major findings of this study are as follows.
First, there are differences between weekday trips and Sunday trips. Reasons for travel are more varied on Sunday than on weekdays when more activities are done in the residential area.
On weekday trips purposes are, for the most part, for education, while on Sunday social trips and leisure trips are significant. This phenomena is related to the different level of accompaniment. On weekdays, children mainly do routine activities in the residential area without the accompaniment of adults, while on Sunday they do various activities out of the residential area with their parents.
Four types of travel - simple type, home-based type, multi-purpose type, complex type - are classified, based on the travel linkage pattern. Home-based type is the most frequent, followed by multi-purpose type, simple type, and complex type respectively. The factors of frequency of travel and travel time vary among the travel type groups. In the case of the home-based type, they are the lowest and shortest respectively. They increases in the order of multi-purpose type, complex type. This stems from the differences in travel destination and the pattern of travel linkage of each group.
Second, independent mobility differs according to child's age. As they get older, they acquire more autonomy through travel mode and their range of activity time and space. In view of trip purposes, children have different travel autonomy by age. Little difference of autonomy exists in trips with family and compulsory activity, while, in the leisure and social trip, the autonomy increases in the 6th grade. This means the increasing impact of peer relationship and theexpanding life space as well as free travel range in the 6th grade. In addition, there are strong
relationships between a child's age and the composition of travel type group. In the 3th grade, the ratio of both simple type and home-based type is high. while in the 6th grade, the ratio of both complex type and multi-purpose type is high. This results from the decreasing travel frequency and travel distance in the 3th grade.
Third, parental lifestyle affects travel autonomy. The level of accompaniment by parents and the range of activity space are extended with increasing car accessibility. This can be attributed to children's accompaniment of parents' travel on Sunday. As for independent mobility, the vice versa. The level of independent mobility from the residential area decreases with increasing car accessibility. This is related to the decreasing mobility of children to leave their homes.
Mothers' employment also influences the frequency of accompaniment and permitted distance by parents. As mother is employed, the level of accompaniment decreases, while permitted range increases. This means the employed mothers are more generous about their children's activities.
In the relationship between parental lifestyle and travel type group, mother's employment is relevant to group composition while car accessibility is not. When mother is employed, the distribution ratio of multi-purpose type and mixing type is relatively higher.
Finally, the relationship between residential setting by housing type and children's travel behavior is analysed. Regarding travel accompaniment, there is little difference in housing type.
A slight increase of the percentage of accompaniment with friend is shown in the children who live in apartments. The location and density of facilities moderately affect travel range but they are not connected with travel frequency. In the composition of travel type group, the ratio of home-based type is higher children who live in apartments. It means their life space is more residential-centered.
As a result of this study, the most significant factor contributing to children's independent mobility is the age of the children. In addition, parental lifestyle and residential settings influence their travel autonomy. In other words, children's travel autonomy is primarily associated with their competence to explore their social and physical environment which, in turn, relates to their travel autonomy. These results suggest the travel demands of children should be differentiated
according to the children's developmental stage, parental lifestyle and residential environment.