S-Space College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학) Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소) 지리학논총 별호 지리학논총 별호 Volume 14/15 (1992)
韓國의 經濟發展과 空間構造 變化
Economic development and the change of spatial structure in Korea
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국토문제연구소
- 지리학논총 별호, Vol.14, pp. 1-236
- restructuring; spatial policy; balanced regional development; spatial divisions of labour; producer services
- The porpose of this dissertation is an understanding about the change of spatial structures in Korea in the relation with Korean economic development since the 1960s. The change of spatial structures is analyzed with focusing on the three aspects: the spatial policy as a measure of state intervention. the trends of manufacturing location. and the distributions of population and labor. The major findings are summing up into following four points.
1. 1nvestment on social overhead capital is major spatial policy instrument in the 1970s. when the Korean state intervention was characterized as direct and phisical input enlargement of capital. But unbalanced regional development. expressed as polarized growth of Capi tal Region and South-East Region. was recognized in this period. And it is considered as responsible mainly to state intervention. For.
infrastructure investment ini tiated by state was concentrated in the two regions. Therefore blanced regional developent was stressed as basic goals in the 2nd Comprehensive National Physical Development Plan during the 1980s. However the accompl ishment of the 2nd Plan is not successful1y accepted in terms of blanced regional developent. The causes of unsuccessful accompl ishment of the 2nd Plan is contended finantial shortages by planners. 1n this study. it is analyzed that the basic cause of unsuccessful accomplishment of the 2nd Plan is not finantial problem but the contradiction of directions between economic development plan and spatial development plan in the 1980s.
Exaggerated egalitarian rhetor ics in the plan as legitimation for developmentalist state intervention to capital accumulation were immposible to backup by practice.
2. Location of manufacturing indusrties were mostly confined in Seoul and Pusan in the 1960s. In the 1970s, manufacturing production activities were rapidly expanded and their location were decentralized toward South-East Region where many large industrial complex provided by the state. In the 1980s, however spatial agglomeration of manufacturing production proceeded in Capital Region. Economy of scale and scope of economy in labour market and technology were required as
locational factors of elctric & electronics which realized the rapidest growth in the 1980s . Only the Capital Region was able to provide such locational requirements. In the 1980s. thus the ini tiative of industrial restructurig tends to be converted from state pol icies to corporate strategies.