S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.06 (1997)
현대중국의 향진기업의 발전과 소성진의 사회문화적 변화 - 지앙수(江蘇)성과 저지앙(浙江)성의 조사를 중심으로
The Development of Xiangzhen Industry and The Socio-Cultural Changes in Small Towns in Contemporary China - With Reference to Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제지역원
- 국제지역연구, Vol.06 No.2, pp. 71-101
- Small towns in the Lower Yangtze region, especially Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, have diversified their strategies for economic development: Manufacturing industries based on external capital and internal investment, tourism industry based on commoditization of the tradition, and huge sized trade market for commercial industry.
In addition to local government-run collective factories, we see the rapid increase of small scale private enterprises run by the family members, by. which the immigrating peasants as low waged labour are accommodated while" the native peasants become non-agricultural businessmen. Under the Sunan Model of rural and small town industrial development (xiang-zhen-chi-ye 鄕鎭企業), individual and private businesses are controlled by the government and inter-related through the governmental collective industries. Although the applying the syatems of family identity (hukou 戶口), personal record (dang-an 檔案), and permission of employment (t'iaoling 調令) is not practiced now, the areas under the study do not show any fundamental changes in social structure. The local and village governments control the excessive influx of external labourers by applying contract system by which peasants come as only partial immigrant for limited duration. Because of the collectivity orientation of the village administration which affects welfare programmes for the inhabitants, immigrant peasants cannot have an easy access to the proper membership of the community. At the same time, the native peasants also are not so enthusiastic to change their family identities because there is no merit of having the urban family identity under the contemporary economic and social situation where peasants as private businessman or trader can afford better life chances in their respective native village.
The economic development has brought the revival of tradition as it is recognized as the significant social resources for the peasants to cope with the rapidly changing economic situation. Family rituals, traditional communal festivals, and newly invented traditions are increasingly organized at the small town level. The cultural life provides a space for the society to challenge against the state. It should be approached, however, from the perspective of competition and compromise among the central government (the state), the local government (local identity), and the peasant (private tradition).