S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.34 (2004)
16~18세기 佛敎儀式集의 간행과 佛敎大衆化
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.34, pp. 97-165
- Despite Buddhist political and social influences declined during the Chosen Dynasty, popularity and commonality of Buddhism rather increased in the period This study of Buddhist texts publication examined the background that Buddhism expanded its influence among people despite the oppression of Buddhism by the government.
Buddhist ritual proceedings were published actively in the 16th and 17th century and drastically cut in the 18th century. The published ritual proceedings were mostly proceedings of Suryuk-jae [or Chondo-jae] and the Suryuk-jae rituals were performed actully in the period. It is also supported by the fact that many of the "Jaesomun" [oral texts to read in the rituals] found in the collection of monks writings were about the Suryuk-jae.
The reason for the wide performance of and popularity of the Suryuk-jae rituals were the natural disasters of "little ice age" and foreign invasions from Japan and China It was the religious reaction to these devastating disasters and wars. The state did not organize any national event to comfort people suffering from the disasters. The national rituals of such nature were not found m the Chosun Wangjo Silrok [Annals of the Choson Dynasty] The ritual texts and the "Jaesomun" fill the vacuum of history Especially, the "Jaesomun" described how the people were suffering realistically The rituals were also psychological preventive curing methods as well as condolatory ceremonies for the dead people They were very appropriate and needed rituals at the time of wide spread epidemic diseases The frequent publication of the ritual texts and performances of the rituals meant that Buddhism played the role of providing social condolence and pacification that the state could not offer
I see the Buddhist religious reactions to the so-called "the general crisis of the seventeenth century" as a background for the popularization and commonerization of Buddhism Buddhism in the 17th century Korea developed social condolence rituals and it caused its popular and low-class based expansion The donors were grown into influential groups in making social opinions