브라질 룰라 정부의 유산과 후세피 정부의 전망

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서울대학교 라틴아메리카연구소(SNUILAS)
Revista Iberoamericana, Vol.22 No.1, pp. 149-182
LulaBRICsperipheral liberalismcoalitional presidentialismnew middleDutch disease룰라브릭스주변부 자유주의 모델연정 대통령제신중간계급네덜란드병
The article tries to evaluate the legacies of Lula government which

were much lauded by national and international media coverage. Brazil under

Lula shows well both the darker and the brighter sides of the reform

experiences since 1990s in Brazil. First, the growth in export market, due to the

Chinese demand, tends to reduce the risks of external crises, and allow for

more vigorous expansion of the domestic market. But Brazilian economic

performance has not been quite good in the last decade comparing with its

historical records. The pace of growth was more moderate with annual growth

rate of 4.1%, well below the ones of the more dynamic developing economies.

Second, the pillars of the macroeconomic policy have been the use the of

exchange rate as an anti-inflation instrument, and the maintenance of primary

surplus, which was continued since the Cardoso administration. Higher rate of

interest combined with a relatively unregulated capital account, has led to

significant capital inflows and a long term tendency to exchange rate

appreciation, which would also leads to the ‘Dutch disease.’

Third, the moderate improvement in income distribution and the appearance of

the “so-called” new middle class was quoted by the Lula government as one of

the main accomplishments. It is clear that the wages of the lower income strata,

in particular, the minimum wage increased at a faster pace. But the average

real remuneration of workers has not improved significantly. The notion of a new

middle-class has been tied more to the enlargement of social programs, and

the expansion of consumer credit.

The Dilma administration tries to expand the more progressive programs of

Lula’s second term(PAC-2), and allow the economy to grow at a faster pace,

promoting a more significant redistribution of income. But the structural

constraints ingrained by the Cardoso and Lula administrations tend to lead her government to a more moderate and cautious agenda.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute of Latin American Studies (라틴아메리카연구소)Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구)Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구) vol.22 no.01/02 (2011)
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