1910년 병합 「칙유」의 文書上의 결함과 불법성
The defect and illegal characteristic of 1910 Emperor Sunjong"s Imperial Instruction on the Transfer of Sovereign Rights to Japan

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.53, pp. 125-152
병합「칙유」날조어새조칙재가관습국제법Emperor Sunjong"s Imperial Instruction on the Transfer of Sovereign Rights to JapanfabricationGreat Sealmperial Edictanctioncustom international law
현재 병합늑약의 불법성 여부와 관련하여 한일 학계에서 가장 쟁점이 되고 있는 부분은 1910년 8월 29일 공포된 순종황제의 병합「칙유」의 '날조' 여부이다. 병합「칙유」가 날조되었다는 주장은 한국에서 먼저 제기되었다. 1910년 8월 29일 공포된 병합「칙유」에는 순종황제의 어명과 어새가 찍힌 다른 조칙과는 달리, 어명이 없고 국새대신 당시 통감부에서 소지한 것으로 여겨지는 어새가 찍힌 점 등을 근거로 일본이 순종황제도 모른 상황에서 「칙유」를 '날조'했거나 아니면 순종이 재가를 거부한 것으로 파악했다. 또한 정식조약(Treaty)의 협상 절차 즉 '전권위원임명→조인→비준'의 과정에서 볼 때 날조된 병합「칙유」는 비준을 대신한 것이기 때문에 병합늑약은 비준을 받지 못한 불법적 조약이라고 주장해 왔다.

Emperor Sunjong"s(純宗皇帝) Imperial Instruction on the Transfer of Sovereign Rights to Japan(倂合勅諭) which had been promulgated in 1910 August 29th was that Japan fabricates. This Imperial Instruction until 1907 November 9th was equipping the traditional document format namely the format of Great Seal(御璽) and countersignature. But after where November 18th Japan forces a Japanese document format, Koreans Imperial Instruction with Japan and sameness changed in the format of Royal Name(御名), Great Seal and countersignature. But to Imperial Instruction there was only Great Seal, it was different with Japanese Emperor"s Imperial Edict(詔勅) which is same character.

Korea and Japan promised to announce Imperial Edict simultaneously. Announcing simultaneously was not Imperial Instruction but clearly Imperial Edict. So Resident-General Terauchi Masatake(寺內正毅) August 27th prepared Imperial Edict on the assumption of Emperor Sunjong"s sanction. By the way This Imperial Edict August 29th was exchanged suddenly in Imperial Instruction. The reason is because Emperor Sunjong refuses an sanction.

Japan fabricated Imperial Instruction from the objective which will complement the problem point of the Korea-Japan Annexation Treaty(倂合勒約) which lacks a ratification process. So the fabricated Imperial Instruction is historical evidence which Emperor Sunjong opposed a treaty, and to correspond to the "national representatives on the force" which custom international law provide a treaty with invalidity".
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.53/56 (2011)
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