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9세기 어느 성리학자의 家作과 그 지향 - 金興洛家 사례
A 19th-century Confucian scholars inherent concern in family farming and agricultural activities

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Authors
김건태
Issue Date
2011-09
Publisher
서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
Citation
한국문화, Vol.55, pp. 115-158
Keywords
家作安民多角化다품종 소량생산소품종 대량생산family farmingfappeasing the peoplediversification of the products in upland field croppingsmall quantity batch production(多品種 少量生産)mass production of a few selected items(少品種 大量生産)
Abstract
19세기 농촌 사회는 성리학적 소양을 쌓은 지식인들로 가득 차있었다고 해도 과언이 아니다. 엄청난 과거응시생 숫자가 그러한 사실을 대변해준다. 魔試 응시자는 정조 말 5만명 정도에서 1880년대에는 15만명 정도로 증가한다. 특히 1879년 정시 응시지는 무려 213,500명이나 되었다. 성리학에 대한 이들의 이해 수준은 천

차만별 이었겠지만 이들이 四書三經에 대한 기본소양을 쌓았다고 보아도 큰 무리가 없을 것이다. 이들은 儒敎經典을 통해 접한 聖賢의 가르침을 따르는 治者의 길을 걷고자 과거에 응시했던 것이다.

과거 응시생 가운데는 재산이 넉넉한 지주도 있었으며, 살림살이가 어려워 일족의 도움을 받아야만 서울을 오갈 수 있는 빈한한 書生도 있었다. 예를 들어 경상도 예천 맛질에 거주하던 양반 지주 朴得寧은 젊은 시절 거의 매년 과거를 보러 서울을 드나들었다. 長興那 賽山面 上金里에 거주하던 水原白民 일족은 18세기

후반 書堂契를 결성하고, 契畓에서 수취한 지대를 기반으로 20세기 전반까지 서당을 운영하였다. 그들은 서당에서 四書를 중심으로 문중 젊은이들을 교육시키고, 鄕試나 京試에 응시하는 일족의 경비를 지원하기도 했다. 조선후기 양반들의 財力이 사람에 따라 큰 차이를 보이게 된 데에는 다양한 이유가 있었겠지만 농사에 대한 개인의 관심이 재산형성에 큰 영향을 미쳤을 것으로 보인다.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the basic structure of agriculture in the late Choson, with the case of the family farming of Confucian Kim Heung-rak who was the head of Confucian scholars in Gyeongsang prefecture in the late nineteenth century. Confucian Kim did not tried to make an effort to increase his family"s property but to find the way of a save-the-nation and appeasing the people, when the nation and the people confronted with the crisis. In fact, because he owned the bulk of farmland(around 500 doorak) and labor powers (around 50 nobi families), he would have cultivated larger lands. However, he farmed small part of his owned lands (just around 15 doorak). Insead, he tried to diversify the products in upland field cropping. Due to diversifying the products in upland field cropping based on advanced agricultural techniques like keunjong (two crops a year 根種) and kanjong (intercropping 間種), Confucian Kim and the farmers In the Andong area in the nineteenth century could harvest more grains.

Intensive farming represented as small quantity batch production (多品種 少量生産) is very different characteristic from mass production of a few selected items (少品種 大量生産) of capitalist-farming. Generally, the capitalist-farming pursues labor productivity increase. The farmer pursuing the capitalist-farming selects and cultivates the grains capable of raising profits the most, and he buys the other grains not being cultivated by him at the market.

By the way, the farmers doing small quantity batch production maintain much stabler life than the farmers doing mass production of a few selected items, because the former can product diverse products they need. They are not worried even if their farm surpluses are not sold, because they just sell the extra products they spend on. Considering on these facts, it seems that Confucian Kim and the people in the Andong in the nineteenth century hoped to live a secure life together, not selecting the way of coexistence in between opportunity [rich farmer] and crisis [poor farmer]; that is, Confucian Kim made an effort to find the way of appeasing the people.
ISSN
1226-8356
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/75762
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.53/56 (2011)
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