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다시 생각하는 “자유무역": 칠레 이끼께 자유무역 지대에서의 감시문화와 도덕경제의 문제
Rethinking "Duty-free Trade": Surveillance and the Question of Moral Economy in lquique, Chile

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Authors
조경진
Issue Date
2005
Publisher
서울대학교 비교문화연구소
Citation
비교문화연구, Vol.11 No.2, pp. 63-101
Keywords
상업 자유무역 지대commercial duty-free zone면세특권duty-free incentivewealth감시surveillance칠레Chile
Abstract
자유무역지대는 정부가 규정하는 경제특구 지역으로서, 외국자본을 끌어들임으로써 지역 또는 국가경제를 활성화시키는 경제개발계획이자 실천지침이다. 이 같은 자유무역지대를 이용한 개발은 1970년대와 80년대에 개발도상국에서 많이 채택되었었다(Dicken 1988; Haggard 1990).

칠레의 피노체트 정권 역시 중앙으로부터 고립되고 경제적으로 낙후된 최북단 지방과 최남단 지방에 1975년도에 자유무역지대를 설립하였다.

최북단의 이끼께 자유무역지대 (ZOFRI, Zona Franca de Iquique, 이하 소프리)는 초기에 수출품을 조립하는 공업지대(export–processing zone)로 기획되었으나, 공업생산은 거의 이루어지지 않고 수출입산업이 발달해 현재 수입완제품을 국내와 제3국으로 유통시키는 화물통과항(entrepôt) 성격이 짙고 현지 언어로 상업자유무역 지대(zona franca comercial)라고도 한다. 지난 30년간 급성장한 소프리는 외부 평가기관에 의하면 남미의 자유무역지대 중에서도 성공적인 사례로 꼽히고 있다(BID-INTAL & AZOLCA 1992: 9).



In 1975, the repressive Pinochet regime installed a commercial duty-free zone in Iquique, the capital city of Chile's northernmost region, Tarapacá. ZOFRI(Zone Franca de Iquique) has since been known for its success, and has been commented as a desirable development engine for a once economically-depressed region. On the other hand, local sociologists have been skeptical about the trickle-down effects the zone has brought for its inhabitants.

This paper explores the economic mechanism by which ZOFRI operates, and the social repercussions of such practices on the Iquiqueño community. Previous research on duty-free zones have focused either on their macro socio-economic effects, or the social tension derived from class differences between wealthier traders and local employees. This study suggests a different approach that focuses on the social practices generated by the duty-free incentive. The duty-free incentive is the basis by which wealth is generated in the Free Zone, and different participants in the zone seek to appropriate this wealth. Administrators at ZOFRI S.A, the Free Zone's administrative company, the traders who conduct business within the zone(usuarios), and the local employees who work for the usuarios constantly create new transaction methods to fully take advantage of the duty-free incentive and thus create wealth from this source. On the other hand, in order to prevent the abuse of the duty-free incentive, ZOFRI S.A has created an elaborate surveillance system The co-existence of illegal means of transaction, stealing and an elaborate surveillance system has brought about fissures in Iquiqueño society where wealth is increasingly associated with black money, money laundering and drug transactions. In all, such a dystopic vision of local community questions the hitherto axiom that ZOFRI has brought about socio-economic development in the region.
ISSN
1226-0568
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/79479
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Cultural Studies(비교문화연구소)비교문화연구비교문화연구 vol.11 no.1/2 (2005)
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