조선후기 무과급제자의 진로에 나타난 차별의 문제 - 1784년(정조 8) 책봉경과를 중심으로
Discriminative Practices reflected in the Careers of the Military exam passers, during the Latter half period of the Joseon dynasty : Examination of the Special exam, held in 1784 to celebrate a happy occasion
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.58, pp. 39-64
- 무과; 무과급제자; 科擧; 冊封慶科; 直赴展試; 宣薦; 官路; Military examination; passers of the Military exam; National Examination system(Gwa"geo, 科擧); Examination held to celebrate a royal entitlement(Chaek’bong Gyeong-gwa，冊封慶科); Direct Application to the Final stage of exam(Jik’bu Jeon-shi, the Seon’cheon/宣薦 process(to select Seonjeon-gwan officials from successful Military exam passers with good backgrounds); career as a governmental official(官路)
- Examined in this article are the future careers of successful Military examination applicants (passers ), in order to discuss a particular topic which has been related to this issue and debated for a long time: namely the question of whether or not the national examination system (of Joseon, or in premodem periods) was "opened5 for multiple classes (and assisted their future advances), and was not only for the ones in power. General understanding of the Military examination system of the latter half period of the Joseon dynasty has viewed it as an exam that served as a conduit for newly rising classes and their further advances, in the wake of a turbulent reconstruction of the existing class-based society. This existing view is actually based upon many speculations, and therefore has not been contributive to the expansion of our knowledge of the Military examination in general.
Specifically discussed here are the successful passers of the Chaek’bong Gyeong-gwa/冊封慶科 exam, which was held in 1784(8th year of King Jeongjo’s reign) as a special examination arranged to celebrate a royal family member"s entitlement. This particular occasion is selected here in order to reexamine the previous understanding of military exams, and also analyze certain discriminative practices that were seemingly imposed upon them. The result shows that people from military houses or from local regions could not benefit very much from the military exams. Conditions of the people who were from the Northwest region and passed the military exam were even worse, as they remained as military officers for the rest of their lives.
Compared to them, literary Sajok figures who passed the military exams were likely to advance their careers as a governmental official much more. Applicants from prominent houses and who passed the exam could take a favorable position in competing for a seat inside the government, through the Seon’cheon/宣薦 process which was to select candidates for Seon’jeon-gwan/宣傳官 officials among the military exam passers.
Not everyone could earn a desirable social rank through the Military exam, and always had to have other backgrounds as well, in terms of local connections, house relations, or party background. There was indeed a social barrier placed in front of the passers of the military exam, which prevented certain people from reaching a certain point in their careers, while some were able to reach and go beyond such points, thanks to their certain privileged backgrounds.