S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.57/60(2012)
조선후기 잡과의 위상과 특성 - 변화 속의 지속과 응집
The Persistence and Cohesion m the Change : The Satus and Characteristics of Chapkwa(雜科) in the Late Chosun Dynasty
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.58, pp. 65-86
- 잡과; 잡과중인; 잡과방목; 지속; 응집; 역과; 의과; 음양과; 율과; Chapkwa(雜科); Chapkwa-Chungin(雜科中人); Chapkwa-Pangmoks(雜科榜目), the Persistence in the Change, the Cohesion in the Persistence
- This paper focuses on the satus and characteristics of Chapkwa(雜科) in the later period of Chosun Dynasty, and categorizes its uniqueness as the persistence and cohesion in the historical change. While the Choson society and other social classes underwent disintegration at that period, the Chpakwa-Chungin(雜科中人) solidified their social position further and formed a unique class.
Chapkwa was also one part of State Examination Sytem, but it was different from Munkwa(文科) and Mukwa(武科) for Yangban class in many aspects. As the examination for Jungin or sub-elite technocrats, Chapkwa was sustained for several hundreds years, and not nearly changed in management of examination, for example the numbers of passers, the pattern of examination, and the examination texts. This paper calls it ‘the Persistence in the Change.’
As a result, at the later period of Choson Dynastym the Chapkwa-Chungin formed a unique class mainly because of their specialty as experts in technical fields. In addition, the social discrimination contributed to cementing the alliance and cooperation among the Chapkwa-Chungin through marriage and economic self-reliance. Their jobs were usually handed down from generation to generation. The analysis of ChapkwaㅡPangmoks(雜科榜目) shows such characters. This paper calls it "the Cohesion in the Persistence’.