광해군대 초반 대일정책의 전개와 그 특징
The Japan policy of Joseon during the early days of King Gwang’hae-gun’s reign, and its characteristics

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
규장각, Vol.42, pp. 129-165
光海君己酉約條倭使 上京 금지南倭北虜功利的ㆍ宥和的 기조King Gwang’hae-gunthe Gi’yu-year Agreementprohibiting Japanese emissaries from visiting Joseon’s capital“Japanese in the South and Barbarians in the North” a utilitarian policy pursuing amicable relationships
본 연구에서는 조선후기 대일외교의 출발선이었던 광해군대 초반 대일정책을, 외형적 측면에서 통교틀의 마련, 정책추진의 안정적 기반 조성을 위한 대내적 명분의 확보, 그리고 정책 기조의 확립 등으로 구분하여 살펴보았다.

광해군 정권은 1609년 기유약조 체결로 對馬島를 통한 대일외교체제를 성립시키고, 倭使 上京 금지를 관철하여 대일외교의 공간을 동래 왜관에 한정시킴으로써, 조선후기 대일외교의 외형적 틀을 마련하였다. 광해군은 당시 ‘南倭北虜’의 역학구도 하에서 일본에 대한 ‘接待’와 여진에 대한 ‘守禦’를 외정의 기본 방향으로 제시하였다. 이를 구현하기 위해서 임진왜란을 일으킨 침략자 일본을 접대의 대상, 즉 통교자로 수용하는 것을 정당화할 수 있는 대내적 명분을 제시하였는데, 이는 朝野의 반일정서를 무마하고 정책 논의 과정에서 제기된 이견을 조율하는 작업이었다. 한편, 실제 대일통교 과정에서 발생하는 문제들에 대해서 명분론적ㆍ원칙론적 관점이 아닌 철저히 功利的ㆍ宥和的 견지에서 대응해나갔다. 이는 17세기 후반에 원칙론적 대응을 통해 정책 기조를 재확립했던 것과는 대조적이다.
Examined in this article is the Joseon government’s policy of dealing with Japan in the early days of King Gwang’hae-gun’s reign, which essentially marked the beginning of the government’s Japan policy in the dynasty’s latter half period. The entire process of opening a channel for official communication, establishing an agenda for the policy and securing momentum for promoting that policy, is examined here in details.

The Gwang’hae-gun regime agreed with Japan to sign on the Gi’yu-year agreement in 1609 and by doing so formed a platform for future Joseon-Japan diplomatic talks arranged through the Dae’ma-do/對馬島 island. Then, the Joseon government reinforced the principle of ‘banning’ Japanese envoys(倭使) from approaching the Joseon capital(“上京”), limiting the activities of the Japanese emissaries in Joseon territory to the Wae’gwan facility of the Dong’rae area. These actions of the Joseon government outlined the format for future diplomatic contacts with the Japanese in the dynasty’s latter half period.

At the time, when the Joseon people was facing Japanese presence in the south part of the Korean peninsula and the ‘Jurchen’ barbarians’ in the north(‘南倭北虜’), Gwang’hae-gun considered ‘maintaining relationships(‘接待’)’ with Japan and ‘protecting the country(‘守禦’)’ from the Jurchen threat as two top-level priorities for the Joseon defense. In order to do that, he had to establish Japan, which invaded Joseon for seven years in the 1590s, as a diplomatic partner to exchange talks with. He had to mitigate the anti-Japanese sentiment of the country’s population, and intermediate clashing opinions in the policy discussion process.

In the meantime, in order to deal with problems surfacing everywhere, Gwang’hae-gun maintained a utilitarian stance of prioritizing the pursuit of amicable relationships, and not an ideological and principle-based one. It was quite a departure from the government’s policy of the late 17th century.
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)규장각규장각 (奎章閣) vol.42/43 (2013)
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