S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Center for East Asian Studies (동아문화연구소) Journal of S.N.U. Institute for Asian Studies (동아문화) 동아문화 Volume 50 (2012)
Dongpo Syndrome Among the Poets of Goryeo and Its Some Aspects reflected in Lee Gyubo’s poems
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 인문대학 동아문화연구소
- 동아문화, Vol.50, pp. 77-152
- Su Shi; Dongpo syndrome; Lee Gyubo; magnanimity and generosity; humor and satire; ideological and philosophical description; individuality and originality
- 中國宋朝 (960-1279) 與韓國高麗 (918-1392) 在經濟、 學術、 藝術等方面的交流十分頻繁。 與前代相比, 兩國的文化交流達到空前的盛況。 比如: 高麗朝文宗三十一年 (1077) 在洪州管下的蘇大縣設立安興亭, 爲出使高麗的宋使臣提供了極大的方便。 又同年, 宋神宗向高麗王提供醫官和藥材。 文宗三十七年 (1083) 以後, 位於京畿道開封郡的開國寺收藏了宋朝的大藏經。 高麗宣宗二年 (1085), 國王的弟弟釋煦 (大覺國師) 親赴宋朝求法, 回國時, 帶回了 《釋典》 以及經書一千餘卷。 同年, 大覺國師在興王寺設置教藏都監, 并從宋、 遼以及日本收購刊印了四千餘卷佛家經典。 宣宗七年 (1090), 文人李昉等人編撰的宏篇巨帙 《文苑英華集》 傳入高麗。
Su Shi (蘇軾，1036-1101)was one of the most distinguished poets in the Northern Song (北宋) Dynasty (960-1127), until now most of his poems are very influential, and he occupies important position in the history of Chinese literature. The Goryeo (高麗) Dynasty (918–1392) has maintain friendly relationship with the Northern Song Dynasty for ages, and the two countries have promoted the exchange of culture, in result Su Shi’s poems were introduced into Goryeo during his lifetime. After that, his poems were widely read by the poets of Goryeo, and several poets of Goryeo liked to recite his poems, in a short time, he gained a great reputation in the literary circle of Goryeo. Even a phenomenon called ‘Dongpo syndrome (東坡熱)’ was formed, and it never disappeared until the latter period of Choseon (朝鮮) Dynasty (1392-1910). First of all, this study considered a phenomenon called ‘Dongpo syndrome’ in all aspects. It shows us how deep ancient Korean poets’ admire for Su Shi was, and it also helps us to infer how big Su Shi’s influence in the literary circle of Goryeo and Choseon was. Generally speaking, since Su Shi’s poems were first introduced into Korea in the middle of the Goryeo Dynasty, almost every ancient Korean poet was influenced by Su Shi. However, among them, Lee Gyubo (李奎報，1168-1241) who was one of the most famous poets in Goryeo seems to be most deeply influenced by Su Shi. So, in this study I gave a careful consideration to how Su Shi had effected on Lee Gyubo’s poems. First, he often used Su Shi’s rhyming words when he wrote poems, it means he deeply admired Su Shi, and it also shows us his will to study Su Shi’s poetry. Secondly, when he wrote poems, he exploited many sources which were related with Su Shi or many phrases from Su Shi’s poems. Thirdly, when he described someone in poem, he used to apply sources of historical figure who had the same surname as him, it is one of the characteristic features shown in the Su Shi’s poems, therefore we can suppose it was the influence of Su Shi. In writing style of poem, Lee Gyubo’s is very similar to Su Shi’s. Many critics agree that magnanimity and generosity, humor and satire, ideological and philosophical description were the most distinguishing features of Su Shi’s poetry. Through this study, I found that Lee Gyubo’s poems also have these features, and it seems to be Su Shi’s influence. Like these, Lee Gyubo’s poems were greatly influenced by Su Shi in many aspects. But we have to notice that unlike other poets of Goryeo who were simply imitating Su Shi’s poems, Lee Gyubo insisted on a poetic theory called ‘Xinyilun (新意論)’, which was highly regarding a poet’s individuality and the originality of poems. Finally, he succeeded in creating his own poetic style.