S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소) 러시아연구 (Russian Studies) 러시아연구 Volume 01/02 (1992)
蘇聯의 對北韓 政治的 影響力 行使에 판한 硏究-根據와 實際-
Soviet Influence upon North Korea: Potential and Practice
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 러시아연구소
- 러시아연구, Vol.1, pp. 247-269
- This paper primarily aims at ana1yzing the potential of Moscow’'s policy leverage upon Pyongyang and how the Soviet government has exercised the potential in its North Korea po1icy since Gorbachev.
Moscow’'s influence potential is assessed in terms North Korean dependency upon the Soviet Union in areas such as economy, trade, and military, in these areas, this study finds, the two countries' bilateral relationship has been far from being an interdependent or balanced one; It was characterized by North Korea’'s unilateral, heavy dependency upon the Soviet Union.
Nonetheless, the Gorbachev government has refrained from exerting direct pressure upon North Korea for policy changes, even though it expressed its hope that a ‘'perestroika’' wou1d a1so take p1ace there. Instead, the Soviets have employed a three-pronged strategy which combines both direct and indirect pressures. First, they have evoked a new perception in Soviet society of North Korea by facilitating publications of revisionist journalists and historians. These reports also seemed to serve making the Pyongyang leadership pliant to Soviet demands. Alongside this, they have employed two types of governmental actions, “"hard" and “"soft" measures, to induce the desired systemic change in North Korea. Hard measures included, for example, Moscow’'s radical reduction of economic aid in 1987 and fundamental transformation of trade policy in 1990. Soft measures included diplomatic approaches to convince the North Korean leadership that reform was inevitable policy choice for North Korea in a new international order.