S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소) 러시아연구 (Russian Studies) 러시아연구 Volume 15 Number 1/2 (2005)
스딸린 대테러의 성격: 1937-38년의 "대규모 작전"을 중심으로
The Nature of Stalin’s Great Terror: The "Mass Operations", 1937-38
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 러시아연구소
- 러시아연구, Vol.15 No.2, pp. 35-68
- This paper examines the nature of Stalin's Great Terror by focusing on the causes, origins, developments and scales of the mass operations during 1937-1938 and identity of their victims. The mass operations were primarily carried out in order to repress certain groups, real or supposed enemies, in the Soviet society, facing the possibility of the war in Europe and Far East. The campaigns targeted not only political oppositions but also social groups such as ex-kulaks and criminals and national minorities including Polishes and Germans. Additionally, the economic depression since 1936 and the coming-soon election of the Supreme Soviet was important background against the mass terror. The mass operations consisted of "kulak operation" and "national operations," which were planned in advance by Stalin and his collaborators, the leadership of the Soviet society. The local leaders had some autonomy in the process of organizing terror, but they were controlled ultimately by the central leaders. The operations produced about more than a million of victims including 600,000 person who were shot. The victims were ordinary people rather than elite, and national minorities were one of main victim groups.