S-Space College of Music (음악대학) Asian Music Research Institute (동양음악연구소) Journal of the Asian Music Research Institute (동양음악) 동양음악 Volume 24 (2002)
19세기 여성음악계의 구도
The Female Musicians of the Nineteenth Century in Korea
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 음악대학 동양음악연구소
- 동양음악, Vol.24, pp. 17-40
- 19세기는 다양한 배경을 갖는 여성음악가들이 민간에서 가장 활발히 활동했던 시기이다. 그런데 이제까지 여성음악가들의 활약상은 궁중의 여악에 한정되었기 때문에 이들의 민간에서의 활동상이 잘 알려지지 않았다. 그리고 민간에서 활동한 여성음악가는 바로 기생이고， 기생하면 일패， 이패， 삼패로 나누어 진다는 식의 설명이 대부분이었다. 그러나 19세기의 여성음악계는 그리 단순한 도식으로 이해될 수 없다. 따라서 본고는 19세기에 민간에서의 활동했던 여성음악가들을 대상으로 이들의 조직 · 활동 범위 · 레퍼토리 등을 분석해 보려한다. 이 과정에서 19세기 음악계에서 여성의 역할이 다면적으로 드러날 것이며, 여성음악가에 대한 기존의 도식적 이해를 재고해 볼 것이다.
The female musicians played a great role in the musical world of the nineteenth century. So far, research on the activities of the female musicians were limited to those of the court, thus, their public activities were not known very well. Furthermore, information on the activities of the female musicians were even misleading. For example, most of the descriptions on the female musicians' public activities were schematic, identifying the musicians with the kisaeng 妓生 (female musicians) and dividing them into ilp'ae 一牌 (the first group), ip'ae 二牌 (the second group), and samp'ae 三牌 (the third group). The nineteenth century was the period when the female musicians of various musical and cultural backgrounds were active in public. Therefore, this paper will examine the various musical and cultural backgrounds of the female musicians in nineteenth-century Seoul by analyzing the organizational system of diverse groups, the boundary of their activities, and repertories. Through the analysis, the kinds of the female musicians will be revealed and the existing misunderstandings about female musicians will be corrected. Based on musical and cultural backgrounds, I divided the female musicians into three types: kinyo 妓女(female musicians who play music for the upper class), sadang 社堂 (originally, pious woman Buddhist), and samp'ae 三牌 (female musicians who play music for the upper class). The female shamans 巫女 were professional singers in the nineteenth century. Although they sometimes gained popularity by singing popular songs, they mainly sang the shamans songs 巫歌 for the shaman rituals. Thus, they did not compete with other musicians in the folk music circle. However, the female shamans' singing became important for appreciative music in the nineteenth century because it had a different meaning than other female musicians' singing. Therefore, this paper will exclude the female shamans.