동물권리와 자연의 언어: 생태비평적 접근 - 헤밍웨이의 『노인과 바다』, 리오폴드의 「산처럼 생각하기」, 스나이더의 『야생의 실천』, 이히마에라의 『고래 타는 사람』을 중심으로 -
Animal Rights and Language of Wild Nature: An Ecocritical Approach Focused on Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, Leopold's "Think Like a Mountain," Snyder's The Practice of the Wild, and Ihimaera's The Whale Rider
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 미국학연구소
- 미국학, Vol.29, pp. 117-139
- 동물권리(animal rights); 생태비평(ecocriticism); 인간중심주의(homopocentricism); 사냥(hunting); 자연의 언어(language of wild nature)
- Anti-anthropocentricism has been a key idea of ecocriticism, which has brought into light such anti-anthropocentric ecocritical discourses as Roderick Nash’s ‘rights of nature’. The animal rights movement and discourses can be understood as an application of Nash’s theory into animals. According to the animal rights discourses, speciesism cannot be accepted in the same way as racism and sexism.
The rights of nature which are applied to non-human beings are placed ín one dimension and human fights which by definition exclusively cover human beings and their society are in another. The difference leads to significant issues, particularly in relation to the question of hunting and fishing. The dilemma of killing animals as ‘friends’ and ‘brothers’ is vividly portrayed and its resolution is meaningfully attempted in Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea and Aldo Leopold’s “Thinking Like a Mountain." In these two narratives, the possibility of going beyond the restricted anthropocentricism and into wild nature ìs suggested. Listening carefully to the words of the wild nature is required to step into wild nature. The significance of the language of wild nature can be grasped in Gary Snyder’s The Practice of the Wild, and its possibility of transcending the Western philosophical tradition is raised together with concrete examples in witi Ihimaera’s The Whale Rider.