<浦項中成里新羅碑>를 통해 본 新羅의 部와 지방지배
‘Bu(部)’ and local ruling system of Silla, reflected upon ‘Pohang -Joongseongri-Silla-stele’

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.66, pp. 207-241
Pohang-Joongseongri-Silla-steleBu(部)-systemGoong(宮)Jakmin(作民)Modanbeol-Hwe(牟旦伐喙)local rulingChon(村)
2009년 5월에 발견된 (이하 중성리비)는 가장 오래된 신라의 비로 학계의 많은 관심을 받아왔다. 필자 역시 비의 발견 이후 비문의 내용과 성격에 대한 의견을 개진해 왔으며, 최근에는 실물 자료를 보고 독자적인 판독과 해석안을 제시하기도 하였다. 발견 이래 어느 정도 시간이 흘렀기 때문에 이미 많은 연구 성과들이 축적되어 왔다고 할 수 있다. 하지만 새로운 신라 비문의 발견을 통한 신라사 연구의 활성화는 당초의 기대에 미치지 못하고 있다는 느낌을 지울 수 없다. 이는 비문에 대한 많은 연구들이 발표되었지만, 대부분 판독과 해석에 집중되어 있으며, 연구자들 사이의 이견이 좁혀지지 않아 비문을 활용하여 신라 사회를 재검토하는 단계에 미치지 못했기 때문으로 여겨진다.
The dispute that has been written on ‘Pohang-Joongseongri-Silla-stele’, occurred between two individuals named Duji-Saganji(豆智沙干支), Ilbuji(日夫智) and Modanbeol-Hwe(牟旦伐喙) which was one of the Silla 6Bu(新羅六部). Goong(宮), which is estimated to farmland, or Mobilized people called Jakmin(作民) was subject of dispute. And Duji-Saganji(豆智沙干支) and Ilguji(日夫智) were won.

From this result, it is possible to know about dismantling process of Silla Bu(部)-system, which is the state system of Early Silla. It is not only becanse of concentration of political power. It is also because of extinction of the communal ownership of Bu. As we can see on the inscription, two individuals, who belongs to HweBu or SaHweBu, took farmland from Modanbeol-Hwe. This shows that Silla 6Bu’s political power is concentrated in HweBuㆍSaHweBu and ownership of the subject of labor and the means of production, which was the Bu originally owned, now belongs to individual person. It means that the nature of the ruling class of Silla changed from representatives of Bu to individual nobles.

‘Pohang-Joongsengri-Silla-stele’ contains a dispute that occurred in the provinces of Silla. Therefore, we can find important clues in conjunction with the local ruling of Silla. Silla organized local administration in several form according to the situation. In some cases, Silla made local areas to Chon(村). And let the local chiefs to rule Chon(村) Autonomously and give them governmental ranking called Ganji(干支) and Ilgeumji(壹金智). In other cases, Silla keep traditional local organization without change to Silla local administration. In this case, self-government of local area was strong further.
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.65/68(2014)
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