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Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Cited 17 time in Web of Science Cited 18 time in Scopus
Authors
dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon
Issue Date
2014-05-06
Publisher
BioMed Central
Citation
Behavioral and Brain Functions, 10(1):17
Keywords
MethylphenidateADHDGene expressionAddiction
Abstract
Background
Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a reinforcer and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known.

Methods
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal model, were pretreated with methylphenidate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) during their adolescence (post-natal day [PND] 42–48) and tested for subsequent methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration. Thereafter, the differentially expressed genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of representative methylphenidate-treated SHRs, which showed CPP to and self-administration of methylphenidate, were analyzed.

Results
Genome-wide transcriptome profiling analyses revealed 30 differentially expressed genes in the PFC, which include transcripts involved in apoptosis (e.g. S100a9, Angptl4, Nfkbia), transcription (Cebpb, Per3), and neuronal plasticity (Homer1, Jam2, Asap1). In contrast, 306 genes were differentially expressed in the striatum and among them, 252 were downregulated. The main functional categories overrepresented among the downregulated genes include those involved in cell adhesion (e.g. Pcdh10, Ctbbd1, Itgb6), positive regulation of apoptosis (Perp, Taf1, Api5), (Notch3, Nsbp1, Sik1), mitochondrion organization (Prps18c, Letm1, Uqcrc2), and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis (Nedd4, Usp27x, Ube2d2).

Conclusion
Together, these changes indicate methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity, altered synaptic and neuronal plasticity, energy metabolism and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation in the brains of methylphenidate-treated SHRs, which showed methylphenidate CPP and self-administration. In addition, these findings may also reflect cognitive impairment associated with chronic methylphenidate use as demonstrated in preclinical studies. Future studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance of the present findings with regard to long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD.
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/109811
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-10-17
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College of Pharmacy (약학대학)Dept. of Pharmacy (약학과)Journal Papers (저널논문_약학과)
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