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Development of stereo endoscope system with its innovative master interface for continuous surgical operation

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Kim, Myungjoon; Lee, Chiwon; Hong, Nhayoung; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Sungwan

Issue Date
BioMed Central
BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 16(1):81
Three-dimensional (3D) endoscope systemMinimally invasive surgery (MIS)Improved novel master interface (iNMI)da Vinci research kit (dVRK)Hands-onthrottle-and-stick (HOTAS)
Although robotic laparoscopic surgery has various benefits when compared with conventional open surgery and minimally invasive surgery, it also has issues to overcome and one of the issues is the discontinuous surgical flow that occurs whenever control is swapped between the endoscope system and the operating robot arm system. This can lead to problems such as collision between surgical instruments, injury to patients, and increased operation time. To achieve continuous surgical operation, a wireless controllable stereo endoscope system is proposed which enables the simultaneous control of the operating robot arm system and the endoscope system.

The proposed system consists of two improved novel master interfaces (iNMIs), a four-degrees of freedom (4-DOFs) endoscope control system (ECS), and a simple three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. In order to simultaneously control the proposed system and patient side manipulators of da Vinci research kit (dVRK), the iNMIs are installed to the master tool manipulators of dVRK system. The 4-DOFs ECS consists of four servo motors and employs a two-parallel link structure to provide translational and fulcrum point motion to the simple 3D endoscope. The images acquired by the endoscope undergo stereo calibration and rectification to provide a clear 3D vision to the surgeon as available in clinically used da Vinci surgical robot systems. Tests designed to verify the accuracy, data transfer time, and power consumption of the iNMIs were performed. The workspace was calculated to estimate clinical applicability and a modified peg transfer task was conducted with three novice volunteers.

The iNMIs operated for 317min and moved in accordance with the surgeons desire with a mean latency of 5ms. The workspace was calculated to be 20378.3cm3, which exceeds the reference workspace of 549.5cm3. The novice volunteers were able to successfully execute the modified peg transfer task designed to evaluate the proposed systems overall performance.

The experimental results verify that the proposed 3D endoscope system enables continuous surgical flow. The workspace is suitable for the performance of numerous types of surgeries. Therefore, the proposed system is expected to provide much higher safety and efficacy for current surgical robot systems.
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