S-Space College of Engineering/Engineering Practice School (공과대학/대학원) Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering (건설환경공학부) Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._건설환경공학부)
The Impact of Cityscape & Street Elements on City Tourism Satisfaction
- 공과대학 건설환경공학부
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- City tourism ; urban tourism ; cityscape ; street vitality ; city tourism satisfaction ; street element
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 건설환경공학부, 2017. 2. 권영상.
- Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. According to the data published by the UNWTO, the number of international tourists is expected to increase up to 1.6 billion by 2020. Most tourists visit large cities as their destination, but the history of city tourism in the academic field is very short and little research has been done relative to its influence. Especially the effect of physical environment on city tourism is a critical agenda in contemporary tourism research since the importance of spacial uniqueness is increasing.
Therefore, this dissertation aims to analyze the effects of the cityscape on city tourism satisfaction and to identify streetscape elements that influence the cityscape satisfaction. In other words, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of urban factors in city tourism and how it varies from cultural background of the tourists. Total 466 foreign tourists from China and Western countries were surveyed and 37 tourists were interviewed. The survey results were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. The result of the interviews were used to confirm and specify the analysis of the survey results and to select the questionnaires for the survey.
In chapter three urban factors(cityscape satisfaction and satisfaction on street vitality) were measured along with nine other tourism factors which can affect the overall tourism satisfaction. The questionnaires were asked in pairs
what the tourist expected and what the tourist experienced. The satisfaction was measured as the difference between the two.
The results of the ordered logistic regression show that satisfaction on cityscape has the most effect on average tourist satisfaction for both group of tourists. The satisfaction on lively streets however has higher effect on the satisfaction of Western tourists than Chinese tourists. Consequently, the Western tourists are more sensitive to urban factors than Chinese tourists.
The satisfaction on beautiful cityscape and street vitality were not low, but considering the low expectation, the urban factors need to be enhanced to have a competitive edge in destination attractiveness.
Based on the findings in chapter three, a commercial block was selected to analyze what specific elements have impact on the tourists satisfaction on streetscape and street vitality. The block that can best represent Seoul and most tourists were willing to visit was chosen as a result of a survey and site analysis. Street elements such as buildings, street signs, terraces, streets vendors etc. were selected for the surveys based on the site and previous researches.
Chi-Square test was used to determine the difference between the two tourist groups and as a result, all the street elements were statistically different. The survey results and interview results are analyzed together to support the findings and describe the phenomena better .
The street elements that are affective to streetscape satisfaction vary among the two tourist groups but the difference is rather insignificant compared to the difference shown in the elements that affect the vitality of the streets. Similar to the results of the interview, non-physical elements such as number of people, satisfaction of food and merchandise, street events and performances had more impact on the Chinese tourists while physical factors such as shop signs, street vendors and terraces were more important to the Western tourists.
The implication of this research is to emphasize the significance of the built environment in city tourism through scholarly investigation. The priority in tourism policy should be on preserving our urban environment and reinforcing the identity of our city, not on building more duty free shops and hotels. Some would find this research as a way to enhance tourism by analyzing the elements that affect the satisfaction of tourists and building an environment that would satisfy them but this research is not about creating a new place for the tourists, but to enhance the identity of a place through urban planning and urban design tools.