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Effects of Alternative Nutritional Manipulation on Physiology and Productivity of Weaning Pigs and Sows

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Authors
장성권
Advisor
김유용
Major
농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부
Issue Date
2015-08
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Keywords
Nutritionphysiologyweaning pigssows
Description
학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 농생명공학부(농생명공학전공), 2015. 8. 김유용.
Abstract
Overall Summary

Effects of Alternative Nutritional Manipulation on Physiology and Productivity of Weaning Pigs and Sows

The objectives of these experiments were 1) to investigate the effect of benzoic acid supplementation on the performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and ammonia gas emission in weaning and growing pigs, 2) to investigate the influence of different energy and dietary lysine levels in gestation diets on reproductive performance, blood composition and growth of gilts and 3) to investigate the effects of different levels of fat supplementation during gestation on reproductive performance, milk composition and their progeny performance of sows.

Experiment I. Effect of VevoVitallⓡ Supplementation on the Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profile and Ammonia Gas Emission in Weaning and Growing Pigs

The experiment was conducted to investigate whether VevoVitall® supplementation provided by DSM Nutrition Korea Ltd. was suitable as an antibiotic alternative and would produce a synergistic effect with antibiotics on growth performance, urine pH, blood profile, nutrient digestibility and ammonia emission in weaning and growing pigs. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments: 1) Ncon (negative control), basal diet (corn-soy bean meal based)
2) Pcon (positive control), basal diet +Colistin sulfate0.12%
3) NeVe, basal diet + VevoVitall® 0.5%
and 4) PoVe, basal diet + Colistin sulfate 0.12% + VevoVitall® 0.5%. Treatments were applied during weaning (5 weeks) and growing (6 weeks) periods. Crossbred pigs (n = 128
[Landrace x Yorkshire] x Duroc) weaned at 24 ± 3d of age were used. After weaning, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were higher in treatment Pcon, NeVe and PoVe than in Ncon (P<0.05). No difference was observed among NeVe and PoVe with added VevoVitall® supplementation to diet and Pcon. Growth performance during the weaning phase was directly influenced on growth of growing phase. During the growing phase, there was no significant difference in ADG
however, Pcon, NeVe, and PoVe tended to show a more positive effect than Ncon. In this experiment, the results did not reveal an interaction or synergistic effect between antibiotic and VevoVitall® supplementation
however, the growth performance of PoVe was greater than that of other treatments. No significant differences were found in nutrient digestibility, blood urea, nitrogen concentration, and nitrogen retention among dietary treatments. In case of urine pH trial, urine pH was lower when VevoVitall® was supplemented (NeVe and PoVe) in weaning pigs diet(P=0.069). Also, in growing phase, treatment PoVe (antibiotic with VevoVitall® supplementation) showed lower urine pH (P=0.059). The pH in feces tended to be loweredby 9.01% and 4.05% respectively when pigs were fed diets supplemented with benzoic acid (NeVe and PoVe), and ammonia gas emission was also reduced by benzoic acid supplementation although the difference was not statistically significant. White blood cell, red blood cell, lymphocyte, total protein and albumin level were determined if there were immune responses detected in blood related to VevoVitall® supplementation. However, no significant differences were observed among all treatments. In conclusion, the results from this experiment suggested that VevoVitall® supplementation in weaning pigs diet had a significant influence on growth performance of weaning pigs.

Experiment II. Influence of different energy and dietary lysine levels in gestation diets on reproductive performance, blood profiles and growth of gilts

The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of different energy andlysine levels of gestating diet on physiological parameters and reproductive performance of primiparous sows. A total of 28 F1 gilts (Yorkshire x Landrace) were allotted to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design with 7 replicates. Factors evaluated were energy levels (3,050 kcal of ME/kg or 3,140 kcal of ME/kg) and dietary lysine levels (0.64% or 0.74%). The each experimental diet was provided to gilts of 2.1 kg/d during gestation period. Total lysine intake of each treatment gestating gilts was 13.4, 15.5, 13.8 and 15.9 g/day, respectively. There were no treatment effects on the body weight changes from breeding day to 90 d of gestation period
however, body weight changes during the whole gestation period (0~110d) was affected by dietary energy and lysine levels. When gilts were fed high energy (3,140 kcal of ME/kg) and high dietary lysine (0.74%) diet showed higher body weight gain (increasing 65.75 kg) than other treatments (p<0.05). Backfat thickness of primiparous for gestation period was not affected by energy lever or level of dietary lysine (P>0.10). Higher lysine level (0.74%) in gestation diet did not show more backfat gain of gilts than low lysine level (0.64%). The number of piglet per litter and litter birth weight were numerically higher when gilts were fed low energy intake (6,405 kcal of ME/d) and 0.64 % lysine level diet during gestation period even though it didn't show significant difference among treatments. Also, higher energy (6,594 kcal of ME/d) or higher lysine (15.5g lysine/d) in gestation diet did not show any positive reproductive performance of gilts. The level of plasma glucose and insulin did not change with high level of energy intake or lysine intake during gestation period. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen at 35 d, 70 d and 90 d in gestation period numerically increased as the dietary lysine level increased (p<0.05). Consequently, these results demonstrated that the energy level and dietary lysine level more than 6,400 kcal of ME/day and 13.4 g/day would be enough for gilts to meet theirrequirements without negative effects on growth performance and reproductive performance.

Experiment III. Effects of Different Levels of Fat Supplementation during Gestation Period on Reproductive Performance, Milk Composition and their Progeny Performance of Sows

The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of different levels of fat during gestation period on reproductive performance of sows. A total of 41 F1 multiparous sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) were allotted to 4 treatments by completely randomized design. During gestation, sows were fed different treatments containing either 1, 2, 3 or 4% of soybean oil whereas all sows were fed the same diet containing 1% soybean oil during lactation. There were no significant differences in body weight and backfat thickness of sows at 110 d postcoitum and 21 d postpartum regardless of dietary fat levels during gestation. Although the change in body weight of gestating sows were similar among treatment groups, the lowest backfat thickness change at 110d postcoitum was observed when sows were fed 3% soybean oil treatment diet (P<0.05). The litter size, total born live, birth weight and weight gain of nursing piglets were not influenced by the inclusion level of soybean oil during gestation. Fat content in colostrum had no response to increased fat level of gestation diet. The mortality of nursing pigs tended to be higher as dietary fat level was increased. No effects were observed in weaning to estrus interval by the different supplementation levels of soybean oil. In economic analysis of gestation feed, the difference price of total gestation feed cost (per sow) is 7.92$ between 1% fat level and 4% fat level of gestation diet. These results demonstrated that higher levels of fat in sow′s diet did not show any beneficial effect on reproductive performance of sows. Moreover fat concentration of colosturm was not increased by dietary fat supplementation in gestating sows diet.
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/119508
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College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학)Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology (농생명공학부)Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._농생명공학부)
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