S-Space College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학) Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology (농생명공학부) Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._농생명공학부)
Lipid and Energy Utilization as Affected by Dietary Lysophospholipids in Swine : 양돈에서 사료내 유화제 첨가가 지질 및 에너지 이용성에 미치는 효과
- 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 농생명공학부, 2016. 8. 김유용.
The objectives of these experiments were 1) to evaluate the effect of dietary lysophospholipids (LPLs) on growth performance of weaning and growing pigs 2) to investigate the effect of different energy and LPL supplementation on the productivity of late gestating and lactating sows 3) to estimate nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in growing pigs.
Experiment 1. Energy sparing effects of dietary LPL in weaning and growing pigs
This study was conducted to evaluate energy sparing effect of lysophospholipid (LPL) on growth performance and productivity from weaning to growing pigs. A total of 140 crossbred ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) pigs with averaging 7.3 ± 1.62 kg of initial body weight were randomly allotted to one of four treatments based on sex and initial body weight according to randomized complete block (RCB) design in 5 replicates with 7 pigs per pen. The 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used and the first factor was dietary energy levels (3,200 or 3,300 kcal ME/kg), and the second factor was supplementation of LPL (Supplementation levels: 0 or 0.05%). Experimental pigs were fed corn-barley-soybean meal based diets and feeding program was composed of three phases (Phase I, 0-2 week
Phase II, 3-5 week
Phase III, 6-10 week). In Phase I, improvements of average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were not affected by dietary treatments. However, gain to feed (G/F) ratio was increased in low energy treatment (P=0.04) and tended to be higher when LPL was supplemented. In phase II (3-5 week), both dietary energy level and LPL supplementation had no effect on growth performance. In Phase III, increased ADG (P<0.01) and tendency of improving G/F ratio (P=0.09) were observed when LPL was added to diets. Supplementation of LPL improved ADG by 15% and 11% in 6-10 week and 0-10 week, respectively. As well supplementation of LPL improved G/F ratio by 20% in 6-10 week and 13 % in 0-10 week. The feed cost/weight gain was reduced when pigs were fed diets containing LPL during overall experiment periods except for Phase II. Consequently, this experiment demonstrated that LPL supplementation to growing pigs diet can improve growth performance and productivity with reducing production cost of pigs.
Key words: Lysophospholipid, Energy level, Growth performance, Economics, Pig
Experiment 2. Effects of different energy and LPL supplementation in late gestating and lactating sows.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different energy levels and LPL supplementation in sow diets from late gestating period to lactating period on the performance of sows and their progeny. A total of 60 F1 (Yorkshire × Landrace) sows at d 90 of gestation were assigned to 4 treatments, 15 replications by CRD. Treatments were divided by dietary energy levels and LPL supplementation levels in factorial arrangements. First factor was energy level (3,300 kcal of ME/kg or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg) and second factor was LPL level (0 or 0.05%). There were no differences on body condition, WEI and ADFI in lactation sows. Rectal temperature of gestating sows (d 110) was increased by increment of energy level and LPL supplementation (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). Although there was no difference in reproductive performance, interaction between energy and LPL supplementation was observed at parturition. High energy treatments (H1 and H2) showed higher number of total born and born alive while low energy treatments (L1 and L2) had lower number of total born and born alive (E×X, P=0.06 and P=0.06, respectively). Litter weight and piglet weight did not show any difference during lactation period, but litter weight gain tended to increase in high energy treatments (P=0.06). Dietary energy level or LPL supplementation had no influence on composition of colostrum and milk (21d). As dietary energy level increased, serum insulin level of lactating sows (21d) was increased (P=0.03). Glucose level was decreased by LPL supplementation at d 110 of gestation (P<0.05). There were no effects on IgG and IgA at 24 hrs postpartum, but LPL treatments (L2 and H2) showed lower IgG level than 0% LPL treatments in suckling piglets at d 21 of postpartum (P<0.01). In conclusion, there were no differences on reproductive performance and litter performance in their progeny although 100 kcal of ME/kg was reduced in sows diets. However, current study showed positive responses in number of piglets and litter weight gain at d 21 of lactation numerically as energy level increased (P=0.18 and P=0.06, respectively).
Key words: Energy, Lysophophospolipid, Sow, Reproductive performance, Litter performance.
Experiment 3. Effects of dietary LPL supplementation on nutrient
digestibility in growing pigs
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy and LPL on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. A total of 12 crossbred ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) pigs with averaging 22.7±1.6kg were allotted to each treatment in an individual metabolic crate to collect feces and urine separately. Growig pigs' nutrient digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates. Treatments were as followed: 1) ME 3,200 kcal/kg, 2) ME 3,200 kcal/kg with LPL supplementation, 3) ME 3,300 kcal/kg, 4) ME 3,300 kcal/kg with LPL supplementation.
All other nutrients in experimental diet were met or exceeded the NRC requirement (2012). The experimental diets were provided twice a day every 07:00 and 19:00. There were no differences in digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash. In addition, there was also no difference in nitrogen retention. However, the amount of fecal N tended to increase as dietary energy level increases (P=0.06). Although fecal N showed linear difference in this experiment, the current study represented that nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention rate were not affected by different energy levels and LPL supplementation. Therefore, it is concluded that LPL supplementation and different energy levels did not affect nutrient digestibility of diets fed to growing pigs.
Key words: Growing pigs, Lysophospholipid, Nutrient digestibility, Nitrogen retention, Dietary energy