S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._국제학과)
Collaborative Public Diplomacy between the Government and NGOs in Korea, Japan and Turkey
정부 와 NGO간 공공외교 협력에 대한 분석 : 한국 , 일본 , 터키의 사례를 중심으로
- Kadir Ayhan
- Lee Geun
- 국제대학원 국제학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제대학원
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 국제대학원 : 국제대학원 국제학과, 2016. 2. 이근.
- As a consequence of changing domestic and international socio-political environment, public diplomacy policies require collaboration between state agencies and non-state actors for more effective and long-term outcomes. There are various non-state actors that can be considered relevant to public diplomacy, but this study focuses on the NGOs. There are only a handful of studies on non-state public diplomacy leaving it a relatively unexplored area. In order to explore understudied area of NGOs activities in the realm of public diplomacy, this research project attempts to answer the questions of why and how NGOs do –or contribute to- public diplomacy. Furthermore, why and how collaboration takes place between state agencies and NGOs in the area of public diplomacy are also explored.
This study first incorporates NGOs into public diplomacy analysis to point out their relevance to different dimensions, communication frameworks, objectives and instruments of public diplomacy. Furthermore, building on this discussion, an analytical framework is developed to predict and normatively suggest what kind of NGOs are the best candidates for collaboration with state agencies for relational and network dimensions of public diplomacy. Moreover, the study develops a typology of collaboration between state agencies and NGOs for public diplomacy initiatives based on two dimensions: project-initiator which refers to whose project the collaborative public diplomacy initiative is, and collaboration-initiator which refers to who proposes the collaboration in the first place.
It is widely accepted in the recent public diplomacy literature that due to certain disadvantages state agencies have, state-centric public diplomacy alone falls short of achieving effective public diplomacy outcomes particularly in the long-term. Where state agencies are insufficient, certain NGOs have advantages that might complement or supplement outcomes of public diplomacy policies of state agencies if they collaborate. Collaboration with NGOs can be either through state agencies welcoming of NGOs applications for collaboration for certain public diplomacy initiatives or alternatively through state agencies quest for best potential partners for those public diplomacy initiatives. This study contends that state agencies open collaboration invitation to NGOs is not enough to maximize their public diplomacy outcomes, they should also actively seek for the appropriate NGO partners, which in result enables benefitting from previously unrealized potentials of these NGOs.
A multiple case study on Korean, Japanese and Turkish NGOs relevance to public diplomacy was conducted to provide empirical data to complement theoretical arguments in this dissertation thesis. The following propositions are strengthened by the discussions in the case study: (1) Some NGOs activities create public diplomacy outcomes which offer untapped potential for more effective public diplomacy. NGOs relevance to public diplomacy can be appreciated when public diplomacy outcomes of their activities -for whatever initial objective they have in mind- are taken into account. (2) NGOs have potential capabilities that include sustainable relationship-building and management, symmetrical and dialogic communication with their stakeholders whom they have rather equal footing with. (3) When credibility is the greatest obstacle to reach out to the certain publics, collaboration with NGOs that enjoy credibility in the relevant (part of the) network can facilitate communication and relationship management. (4) When reach is the greatest obstacle to conduct effective public diplomacy in some areas, collaboration with NGOs that have bridging social capital can facilitate connection, communication and relationship management. (5) State-centric public diplomacy is not enough for effective public diplomacy. In order to make up for its insufficiencies in different dimensions, state agencies need to collaborate with or outsource to NGOs that are already doing – or that has potential to do- effective activities in those dimensions in line with public diplomacy objectives of the state agencies.