S-Space College of Veterinary Medicine (수의과대학) Dept. of Veterinary Medicine (수의학과) Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._수의학과)
Development and Evaluation of Intra-abdominal Hypertension Model in Conscious Dogs
의식이 있는 개에서 복강내압 항진증 모델의 개발 및 평가
- Min Jang
- 수의과대학 수의학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; dog; model
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 수의학과, 2017. 2. 이인형.
- Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have been increasingly recognized as a cause of significant mortality in critically ill patients. The reference interval for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in the dog ranges from 0 to 7.4 mmHg, and is affected by body position, abdominal wall tone, ascites, peritonitis, trauma, and gastrointestinal disease. IAH can cause significant dysfunction of cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal systems. Because existing animal models have been designed to increase IAP under general anesthesia, there is little information whether anesthetic agents have significant impacts on research findings. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop an IAH model in conscious dogs and to evaluate the effect of IAH on the renal system in anesthetized dogs. In addition, this study described the computed tomography (CT) features of IAH in dogs with abdominal distension.
In chapter I, a new balloon device using a Foley urinary catheter and latex balloon was placed in the intra-abdominal cavity. Consecutive measurements of IAP were made by measuring the intravesicular pressure. The air insufflated into the intra-abdominal balloon device significantly increased the IAP and sustained the IAH without general anesthesia. An acute increase in IAP using the balloon device in normal conscious dogs induced discomfort and gastrointestinal disturbance, as well as increased respiratory effort.
In chapter II, the effect of increased IAP on plasma exogenous creatinine clearance was evaluated in IAH dogs. Plasma exogenous creatinine clearance was compared after intravenous administration of exogenous creatinine solution at 80 mg/kg under four different treatment conditions as follows: control in conscious dogs (CC), IAP levels of 25 mmHg in conscious dogs (C25), control in anesthetized dogs (AC), and IAP levels of 25 mmHg in anesthetized dogs (A25). There were no significant differences in plasma creatinine concentration for CC, AC, and C25 during the treatment period. However, in the A25 treatment condition, the plasma creatinine clearance significantly decreased at 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after administration of creatinine.
In chapter III, the CT features of IAH were described in three dogs with abdominal distension. Compression of the caudal vena cava and elevation of the diaphragm in the seven CT features were observed in all three dogs, while inguinal herniation and renal compression were seen in a dog with an IAP of 26 mmHg. The presence of compression of the caudal vena cava and direct renal compression on the CT images in IAH dogs could induce direct compression of the renal vessels and/or renal parenchyma, increased renal vascular resistance, and renal dysfunction when IAP was elevated.
Based on the results of the present studies, this conscious IAH dog model demonstrated various effects of increased IAP on cardiovascular, respiratory and renal function and was considered as a useful method to induce IAH in conscious dogs. Since increasing awareness of the detrimental effects of IAH has led clinicians to understand the pathobiology and treat IAH in critically ill patients, this conscious IAH dog model could be used to further enhance IAH and ACS researches.