An Analysis of the universal primary education in Kenya : the impact of iInternational development agenda in national policy practice
케냐 보편초등교육 분석: 국가정책 프랙티스에서의 국제개발원조 의제 영향력
- 사범대학 교육학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- universal primary education; international educational development; international development agenda; educational development policy; global-national dynamics; Kenya
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 교육학과, 2013. 8. 김기석.
- The research presented here is a study of the global educational development discourse in national policy practice of universal primary education (UPE) in Kenya. This study provides an opportunity to identify and analyze the effects of global development agenda and national response in policy practice in Kenya with a focus on primary education.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, education policy for universal primary education has long been a popular policy choice for many countries although lacking continuity due to global and domestic constraints. Yet, much debate on the challenges and shortcomings on similar UPE policies driven by the international development agencies pushing the millennium development goals (MDGs) as the ultimate goal continued when simple and numerate expression of the MDGs became dominant development agenda in global development society. Decline in the quality of education, vicious cycle of overcrowded classrooms and high dropout rates, and questionable sustainability resulted from financial constraints are common outcomes of impromptu policy implementation in most countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region that introduced UPE including Kenya.
Suffered from the British colonial rule for a long time, Kenya endeavored to expand educational opportunity through the introduction of UPE policy. In order to rise above the initial setting of colonial education system from the onset of independence, education system reform was conducted for the introduction of UPE policy. Political, economic and social changes in the society, in turn, affected the segmental development of the UPE policy in Kenya. The expansion of UPE in the 1970s, decline in the 1980s, and the new emergence from the 2000s, particularly with the 2003 UPE initiative supported by the international development community through the Kenya Education Sector Support Program (KESSP).
Among many developing countries in the SSA region adopted UPE policy as a major strategic plan for national educational development, Kenya has achieved notable progress with regards to the MDGs and Education for All (EFA) targets and indicators with the substantial aid from major international development agencies in the implementation process. Despite the quantitatively progress toward the attainment of universal primary education, this progress is not reaching the marginalized. Kenya still confronts many challenges in enhancing access, equity, quality and relevance of education including regional disparities, low capacity and weak governance in education, lack of human and financial resources, and ineffective and uncoordinated monitoring and evaluation systems.
The UPE policy in Kenya has been underpinned by the dominant global educational development agenda promoted by international development agencies where the global-national dynamics prescribed in embracing universal primary education into national policy practice. As observed in the case of Kenya, the national educational development policy in developing country is often swayed by the direction of hegemonic international agenda. Lacking financial stability and state accountability for sustainable implementation may alter the goal of universal primary education to the outcome of universal poor education. Therefore, the UPE in Kenya provides a good case study to examine the global-national dynamics in the educational development practice and challenges in the course of interaction, representing a developing country responding to powerful global educational development agenda in its national policy practice.